|Product Name||The Medieval Fortress: Castles, Forts And Walled Cities Of The Middle Ages|
|Category||Book / Magazine / Publication|
|Amazon.com||Buy on Amazon ~ 1580970621|
|Price New||60.00 US Dollars (curriencies)|
|Price Used||6.13 US Dollars (curriencies)|
|Width||8.8 inches (convert)|
|Height||0.96 inches (convert)|
|Length||11.31 inches (convert)|
|Author||J.E. Kaufmann, H.W. Kaufmann, Robert M. Jurga, H. W. Kaufmann|
|Features||Used Book in Good Condition|
|Long Description||The castles of the Medieval world continue to interest readers, both as architectural wonders and because of their dramatic role in world history. The general public is largely unaware of just how many castles survive today or over how wide an area of Europe and the Middle East they are to be found.Fortifications specialist J.E. and H.W. Kaufmann and technical artist Robert Jurga (authors of the acclaimed Fortress Europe: European Fortifications of World War II ) have once again combined European sources and personal observations to present a unique portrait of military architecture. They reveal how the medieval fortress combined both Roman and barbarian features, with some influences from as far away as China. Detailed coverage is given for castles in the British Isles, France, Germany, Moorish Spain, and as far east as Poland and Russia, as well as Muslim and Crusader castles in the Middle East. The Medieval Fortress covers the origin and evolution of the castles and other walled defenses, their major components, and the reasons for their eventual decline, which was not solely due to the introduction of gunpowder. Also receiving extensive coverage are the weapons and equipment of garrisons and besieging troops. Over a hundred photographs and 150 extraordinarily detailed technical drawings accompany the main text, which also takes an in-depth look at representative castles of each major type.|
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Article of interest
The Facing Identification Mark, or FIM, is used by the United States Postal Service (USPS) for the automation of mail processing. Basically, the FIM is a set of vertical bars that are printed on the upper edge of an envelop or postcard, slightly to the left of the stamp. It’s a nine digit barcode that consists of vertical bars and zeros, which are represented by the blank spaces.
The FIM’s primary function is to ensure that all mail is facing the proper way, to identify how the postage was paid (business reply, etc.) and whether or not the business reply mail has a POSTNET barcode. Should there be a POSTNET barcode, the mail can then be sent directly to the barcode sorter.
There are four different types of FIM barcodes, A, B, C and D.
- FIM A: Used for courtesy reply mail and metered reply mail with a preprinted POSTNET barcode.
- FIM B: Used for business reply mail without a preprinted ZIP+4 barcode.
- FIM C: Used for business reply mail with a preprinted ZIP+4 barcode.
- FIM D: Used only with IBI postage.
As far as standards are concerned, the FIM has to meet very specific guidelines:
- A FIM clear zone must not contain any printing other than the FIM pattern
- The rightmost bar of the FIM must be at least 2” (+/- 1/8”) from the right edge of each piece of mail
- Each FIM bar must be 5/8” high (+/- 1/8”) and 1/32” wide (+/- 0.008”)
- The tops of each FIM bar can’t be lower than 1/8” from the top edge of the mail
- The bottoms of each FIM bar can’t touch the bottom edge of the FIM clear zone, but can’t be more than 1/8” above or below the edge.