Image
EAN-139780745645452   EAN-13 barcode 9780745645452
Product NameWar And Conflict In Africa
LanguageEnglish
CategoryBook / Magazine / Publication
Short DescriptionHeight:9.6 inches / Length:6.74 inches / Weight:1.31 pounds / Width:0.95 inches
Amazon.comA Buy on Amazon ~ 0745645453
SKU56743104846
Price New15.56 US Dollars    (curriencies)
Price Used7.07 US Dollars    (curriencies)
Width0.8 inches    (convert)
Height9.7 inches    (convert)
Length6.8 inches    (convert)
Weight20.48 ounces    (convert)
AuthorPaul D. Williams
Page Count320
BindingPaperback
Published10/10/2011
Long DescriptionAfter the Cold War, Africa earned the dubious distinction of being the world's most bloody continent. But how can we explain this proliferation of armed conflicts? What caused them and what were their main characteristics? And what did the world's governments do to stop them? In this fully revised and updated second edition of his popular text, Paul Williams offers an in-depth and wide-ranging assessment of more than six hundred armed conflicts which took place in Africa from 1990 to the present day - from the continental catastrophe in the Great Lakes region to the sprawling conflicts across the Sahel and the web of wars in the Horn of Africa. Taking a broad comparative approach to examine the political contexts in which these wars occurred, he explores the major patterns of organized violence, the key ingredients that provoked them and the major international responses undertaken to deliver lasting peace. Part I, Contexts provides an overview of the most important attempts to measure the number, scale and location of Africa's armed conflicts and provides a conceptual and political sketch of the terrain of struggle upon which these wars were waged. Part II, Ingredients analyses the role of five widely debated features of Africa's wars: the dynamics of neopatrimonial systems of governance; the construction and manipulation of ethnic identities; questions of sovereignty and self-determination; as well as the impact of natural resources and religion. Part III, Responses, discusses four major international reactions to Africa's wars: attempts to build a new institutional architecture to help promote peace and security on the continent; this architecture's two main policy instruments, peacemaking initiatives and peace operations; and efforts to develop the continent. War and Conflict in Africa will be essential reading for all students of international peace and security studies as well as Africa's international relations.
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Created11-20-2012 5:54:58am
Modified05-01-2020 12:27:43am
MD5d4963f69c99fb44ba6a16bf603c3bb94
SHA2566613752ab8e3a037d092967f036fa724ec4c690f419d5d34f2ac21b5a54ee551
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Article of interest

Barcodes are graphical representations of data that are hard for people to read but very easy for scanners to read. These codes come in various formats and are used all over the place for so many reasons. Some are lines others are blocks and they come in many styles.

Barcodes started out as 1D codes that look like a series of virtical lines taht come in various thincknesses and represent a small amount of date. Some examples include EAN, UPC and ISBN which are found on products and books you encounter every day. Here are some samples:

UPC Barcode

UPC-A Code

 

EAN Barcode

EAN-13 / ISBN-13 Code

 

For slightly more complex data that includes numbers and letters and some times punctuation, there are other types of barcodes such as Code 39, Code 128, Interleaved 2 of, Codabar, MSI and Plessey. Examples of these are shown here:

Barcode Code 39

Code 39 (limited text)

 

Barcode Code 128

Code 128 (full text)

 

Interleave 2 of 5

Interleave 2 of 5 (digits only)

 

Barcode Codabar

Codabar (digits and limited punctuation)

 

Barcode MSI

MSI (digits only)

 

Barcode Plessey

Plessey (digits and letters A-F)

 

You can see that all of these have the same basic format of vertical lines. They are actually very different in the the way they encode the data though and not all scanners can understand all of the different barcodes.

There are also a number of 2D barcodes. These look like retangles or squares filled with dots or blocks. These require image scanners that can see the entire image not just a stripe through the middle of the code. There are several different types of these codes. One of the most popular codes at the moment is the QR Code which stands for Quick Response Code and you have probably seen it in advertisements. Here are some examples of 2D barcodes.

Barcode QR Code

QR Code

 

Barcode PDF417

PDF417

 

Barcode Aztec

Aztec

 

Barcode Maxicode

Maxicode

 

Barcode Data Matrix

Data Matrix

You can see that these are far more complex than the standard 1D barcodes. They also store a lot more data in a much smaller area in relative terms. You will find these in warehouses and on shipping packages. Many people and government agencies are using these codes on ID badges and ID cards to store information.

If you need to make your own barcodes, you can do it here on this site. We have two pages related to making barcodes. One page for 1D and one for 2D barcodes because the two are created in very different ways. Use these links to get to the pages where you can make your own FREE barcodes.

1D Barcodes or 2D QR Codes

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