|Product Name||Iraq: The Moral Reckoning: Applying Just War Theory To The 2003 War Decision|
|Category||Book / Magazine / Publication|
|Amazon.com||Buy on Amazon ~ 0739138936|
|Price New||72.32 US Dollars (curriencies)|
|Price Used||56.82 US Dollars (curriencies)|
|Long Description||Iraq: The Moral Reckoning applies classic just war theory to the U.S. decision to go to war in 2003. That theory, which evolved over several millennia, is a simple, profound tool for evaluating the rightness and wisdom of starting a war. The Bush administration and its supporters referred directly and indirectly to the theory in making a pro-war case to the world. The theory provides three core moral criteria for a just war: sovereign authority, just cause, and right intention (which includes an aim of peace). It adds three practical criteria: proportionality of ends, last resort, and reasonable chance of success. For a just war, each criterion should be substantially met. Since war is destructive and each country is presumed to have the right to live in peace, the evidence in favor of war must be clearly stronger than evidence against it. For each criterion, Iraq: The Moral Reckoning painstakingly weighs Bush administration statements, or those of its supporters, against evidence available at the time. A wide range of viewpoints and evidence is considered, and contrary arguments are refuted. One full chapter is given to neoconservative arguments on just war theory and its application from prominent war supporters. Each criterion, except sovereign authority, is shown not to have been met. The book concludes with a discussion of the implications of an unjust war for the United States and the world. The intensive weighing of each criterion against the facts and the balanced approach make the book unique. By demonstrating a comprehensive application of the theory to one war, it not only sets a new standard for evaluating the 2003 Iraq war, but also shows how present and future wars can be better evaluated in moral and practical terms, based on knowledge available at the time.|
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Article of interest
ISBN stands for International Standard Book Number. Originally this was a 10 digit number known as ISBN-10, but has been replaced with a 13 digit version known as ISBN-13 (aka EAN-13) to better fit in with the industry standard product numbering system.
The ISBN system offers a unique numbering system for books and publications of various types. ISBN offers 9 identification digits for each book or publication and one check digit. ISBN-13 expands the available number set by doubling the available numbers. You might think that the extra three digits would more than double the available numbers but ISBN is limited within the EAN-13 numbering system and will always start with 978 or 979 as the first three digits, leaving only 9 more digits for the actual identification digits and again the last digit is the check digit.
Any ISBN-10 number can be converted to ISBN-13. Any ISBN-13 number that starts with 978 can be converted back to ISBN-10. ISBN-13 numbers that start with 979 cannot be converted to ISBN-10.
The conversion process from ISBN-10 to ISBN-13 is a rather simple one. Start with the first 9 digits of the ISBN-10 number, place 978 in front and calculate the new check digit using the standard EAN check digit calculation.
If you want to calculate the check digit for ISBN-10, that is done using a MOD-11 calculation that is very different than the EAN check digit process.
- Lets start with ISBN-10 number 1-5905-9332-?
- Each digit is multiplied by its position for digits 1-9
- 1x1 + 5x2 + 9x3 + 0x4 + 5x5 + 9x6 + 3x7 + 3x8 + 2x9 = 180
- Now get the remainder 180 mod 11 = 4
- Now return the mod 11 again... 4 mod 11 = 4
- If the results is 10, return the letter X otherwise return the digit.
- For our example, the final number is 1-5905-9332-4
Look at the number above and below the barcode. You will see that except for the last digit in the ISBN number, all of the digits exist in the 13 digit version shown under the barcode right after the 978 and just before the new check digit of 5.
Now you can see how easy it is to convert between ISBN-10 and ISBN-13.