|Product Name||Schooling America: How the Public Schools Meet the Nation's Changing Needs (Institutions of American Democracy)|
|Category||Book / Magazine / Publication|
|Amazon.com||Buy on Amazon ~ 0195315847|
|Price New||9.68 US Dollars (curriencies)|
|Price Used||2.00 US Dollars (curriencies)|
|Width||0.9 inches (convert)|
|Height||5 inches (convert)|
|Length||7.7 inches (convert)|
|Weight||13.6 ounces (convert)|
|Author||Patricia Albjerg Graham|
|Long Description||In this informative volume, Patricia Graham, one of America's most esteemed historians of education, offers a vibrant history of American education in the last century. Drawing on a wide array of sources, from government reports to colorful anecdotes, Graham skillfully illustrates Americans' changing demands for our schools, and how schools have responded by providing what critics want, though never as completely or as quickly as they would like. In 1900, as waves of immigrants arrived, the American public wanted schools to assimilate students into American life, combining the basics of English and arithmetic with emphasis on patriotism, hard work, fair play, and honesty. In the 1920s, the focus shifted from schools serving a national need to serving individual needs; education was to help children adjust to life. By 1954 the emphasis moved to access, particularly for African-American children to desegregated classrooms, but also access to special programs for the gifted, the poor, the disabled, and non-English speakers. Now Americans want achievement for all, defined as higher test scores. While presenting this intricate history, Graham introduces us to the passionate educators, scholars, and journalists who drove particular agendas, as well as her own family, starting with her immigrant father's first day of school and ending with her own experiences as a teacher. Invaluable background in the ongoing debate on education in the United States, this book offers an insightful look at what the public has sought from its educational institutions, what educators have delivered, and what remains to be done.|
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Article of interest
The extra items are numerically indexed and provide extra text to go along with numeric values such as weights or distances or even currencies. The attributes that use these extra indexes are all numeric and take two fields. You can send the data in a single field as long as you use the same short or long text that we keep in our database.
Although the data feed API can deliver information as JSON or XML, we are using XML here because it is easier to read.
<attribute> <extra_group>Distance</extra_group> <field_name>depth</field_name> <extra> <id>501</id> <extra_short>in</extra_short> <extra_long>inches</extra_long> <seq>10</seq> </extra> <extra> <id>503</id> <extra_short>ft</extra_short> <extra_long>feet</extra_long> <seq>20</seq> </extra> <extra> <id>505</id> <extra_short>yrd</extra_short> <extra_long>yards</extra_long> <seq>30</seq> </extra> </attribute>
Looking at this example, you can see that the EXTRA portion is an array of values each with their own properties. Here is what each section means:
- extra_group - The text name representing the type of information the extra value represents. The extra elements are associated with this group.
- field_name - The field that this extra information is attached to. Multiple fields can be attached to the same extra_group.
- id - This is the unique id that identifies the specific extra element. It is unique across all extra groups.
- extra_short - The short text used to enhance the main data item.
- extra_long - The long text used to enhance the main data item.
- seq - The sequence that we use to display this element in a list. When two sequence numbers are the same we sort by the extra_long value.
This extra information is normally used in a drop down box next to the numeric data field that we want to enhance. Some examples might be:
- 12 pounds
- 15.25 US Dollars
- 354 grams
- 12.4 ounces
- 12 lbs
- 15.25 USD
- 354 g
- 12.4 oz
You see we can display the long or short version of the extra code by using the ID index.
Fields that make use of this extra information require it when pushing data back to us in the feed. You can either send the data in two fields (value and extra_id) or in a single field (value) as long as the text following the numeric portion matches the long or short version of the extra data we store for the field.
For example, if you wanted to update a field that represented distance with the value "100 yards", you could either send that data just like that in the value field value=100+yards or in two seperate fields value=100&extra_id=505 and you would get the same results. If you send an invalid extra_id or text after the number that doesn't match our accepted list, your update would be rejected.