|The Color Of Welfare: How Racism Undermined The War On Poverty
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|Thirty years after Lyndon Johnson declared a War on Poverty, the United States still lags behind most Western democracies in national welfare systems, lacking such basic programs as national health insurance and child care support. Some critics have explained the failure of social programs by citing our tradition of individual freedom and libertarian values, while others point to weaknesses within the working class. In The Color of Welfare , Jill Quadagno takes exception to these claims, placing race at the center of the "American Dilemma," as Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal did half a century ago. The "American creed" of liberty, justice, and equality clashed with a history of active racial discrimination, says Quadagno. It is racism that has undermined the War on Poverty, and America must come to terms with this history if there is to be any hope of addressing welfare reform today. From Reconstruction to Lyndon Johnson and beyond, Quadagno reveals how American social policy has continually foundered on issues of race. Drawing on extensive primary research, Quadagno shows, for instance, how Roosevelt, in need of support from southern congressmen, excluded African Americans from the core programs of the Social Security Act. Turning to Lyndon Johnson's "unconditional war on poverty," she contends that though anti-poverty programs for job training, community action, health care, housing, and education have accomplished much, they have not been fully realized because they became inextricably intertwined with the civil rights movement of the 1960s, which triggered a white backlash. Job training programs, for instance, became affirmative action programs, programs to improve housing became programs to integrate housing, programs that began as community action to upgrade the quality of life in the cities were taken over by local civil rights groups. This shift of emphasis eventually alienated white, working-class Americans, who had some of the same needs--for health care, subsidized housing, and job training opportunities--but who got very little from these programs. At the same time, affirmative action clashed openly with organized labor, and equal housing raised protests from the white suburban middle-class, who didn't want their neighborhoods integrated. Quadagno shows that Nixon, who initially supported many of Johnson's programs, eventually caught on that the white middle class was disenchanted. He realized that his grand plan for welfare reform, the Family Assistance Plan, threatened to undermine wages in the South and alienate the Republican party's new constituency--white, southern Democrats--and therefore dropped it. In the 1960s, the United States embarked on a journey to resolve the "American dilemma." Yet instead of finally instituting full democratic rights for all its citizens, the policies enacted in that turbulent decade failed dismally. The Color of Welfare reveals the root cause of this failure--the inability to address racial inequality.
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There are many types of barcode scanners out on the market ranging from inexpensive wonds that look like pens all the way up to retail table scanners that are very fast and accurate. The scanner you select depends on your needs which is dictated by the type of barcodes you will be scanning, the volume and speed at wich you need to scan.
The wand or pen scanner is one of the least expensive scanners in most cases. Although these are easy to use, they are limited in speed and accuracy of what they can scan. These are wonderful for low volume environments where you need to scan simple barcodes. These are used by pressing the pen to the paper and drawing it across the barcode. The light at the end of the pen registers the light and dark bars as the pen passes over them and transmit the data to the receiver. The main drawback to these scanners are the speed at which they can scan with any accuracy. It often takes a little practice to get the timing correct. Too slow or too fast and the barcode won't be recognized. This can limit the number of codes that can be scanned.
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All of the scanners we have talked about so far are limited to 1D barcodes. These are the codes that are made up of lines and are read as the scanner reads in the dark and light bars. The main difference between the scanners is the speed and accuracy and of course the price. But in general they all serve the same basic function and operate in the same basic way.
There is another type of barcode scanner. These can usually scan the 1D barcodes just like the previous models but they can also scan the 2D barcodes such as the QR Codes which store a great deal of data in a tightly packed area. These work not by sweeping across the barcode in one direction, but by looking at the entire code at one time both vertically and horizontally. This type of scanner can come in many forms. You may even have one of these built into your phone. These full image scanners come in many price ranges. The version you have on your phone may have been free or cost only a couple dollars. Larger versions are available as hand heald, desktop and even industrial scanners. Just like the 1D scanners, what you scan and how often you scan will determine which type of scanner you need. For the average individual the low end scanner is normally enough but businesses will find that more reliable and faster scanners are a better investment even though they are more expensive.
As with any product, it is important to determine your need before you make your purchase. And whend possible it is a good idea to test out the scanners before spending a great deal of money.