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MDADM(8)                    System Manager's Manual                   MDADM(8)

NAME
       mdadm - manage MD devices aka Linux Software RAID

SYNOPSIS
       mdadm [mode]  [options] 

DESCRIPTION
       RAID  devices  are  virtual devices created from two or more real block
       devices.  This allows multiple devices (typically disk drives or parti-
       tions  thereof)  to be combined into a single device to hold (for exam-
       ple) a single filesystem.  Some RAID levels include redundancy  and  so
       can survive some degree of device failure.

       Linux  Software  RAID  devices are implemented through the md (Multiple
       Devices) device driver.

       Currently, Linux supports LINEAR md devices,  RAID0  (striping),  RAID1
       (mirroring),  RAID4,  RAID5, RAID6, RAID10, MULTIPATH, FAULTY, and CON-
       TAINER.

       MULTIPATH is not a Software RAID mechanism, but does  involve  multiple
       devices:  each  device is a path to one common physical storage device.
       New installations should not use md/multipath as it is  not  well  sup-
       ported  and  has  no  ongoing development.  Use the Device Mapper based
       multipath-tools instead.

       FAULTY is also not true RAID, and it only involves one device.  It pro-
       vides a layer over a true device that can be used to inject faults.

       CONTAINER  is  different again.  A CONTAINER is a collection of devices
       that are managed as a set.  This is similar to the set of devices  con-
       nected to a hardware RAID controller.  The set of devices may contain a
       number of different RAID arrays each utilising some  (or  all)  of  the
       blocks  from  a  number  of  the  devices in the set.  For example, two
       devices in a 5-device set might form a RAID1 using the  whole  devices.
       The  remaining  three  might  have  a RAID5 over the first half of each
       device, and a RAID0 over the second half.

       With a CONTAINER, there is one set of metadata that  describes  all  of
       the arrays in the container.  So when mdadm creates a CONTAINER device,
       the device just represents the metadata.  Other  normal  arrays  (RAID1
       etc) can be created inside the container.

MODES
       mdadm has several major modes of operation:

       Assemble
              Assemble  the  components  of a previously created array into an
              active array.  Components can be  explicitly  given  or  can  be
              searched  for.   mdadm checks that the components do form a bona
              fide array, and can, on request, fiddle  superblock  information
              so as to assemble a faulty array.

       Build  Build   an   array   that   doesn't   have  per-device  metadata
              (superblocks).  For these sorts of arrays, mdadm cannot  differ-
              entiate  between  initial creation and subsequent assembly of an
              array.  It also cannot perform any checks that appropriate  com-
              ponents  have  been  requested.  Because of this, the Build mode
              should only be used together with a  complete  understanding  of
              what you are doing.

       Create Create  a  new  array  with  per-device  metadata (superblocks).
              Appropriate metadata is written to each  device,  and  then  the
              array comprising those devices is activated.  A 'resync' process
              is started to make sure that the array is consistent (e.g.  both
              sides  of a mirror contain the same data) but the content of the
              device is left otherwise untouched.  The array can  be  used  as
              soon  as  it has been created.  There is no need to wait for the
              initial resync to finish.

       Follow or Monitor
              Monitor one or more md devices and act  on  any  state  changes.
              This  is  only  meaningful  for  RAID1, 4, 5, 6, 10 or multipath
              arrays, as only these have interesting state.  RAID0  or  Linear
              never have missing, spare, or failed drives, so there is nothing
              to monitor.

       Grow   Grow (or shrink) an array, or otherwise reshape it in some  way.
              Currently supported growth options including changing the active
              size of component devices and  changing  the  number  of  active
              devices  in  Linear and RAID levels 0/1/4/5/6, changing the RAID
              level between 0, 1, 5, and 6, and between 0 and 10, changing the
              chunk  size  and layout for RAID 0,4,5,6,10 as well as adding or
              removing a write-intent bitmap.

       Incremental Assembly
              Add a single device to an appropriate array.  If the addition of
              the  device makes the array runnable, the array will be started.
              This provides a convenient interface to a hot-plug  system.   As
              each  device  is  detected,  mdadm has a chance to include it in
              some array as appropriate.  Optionally, when the --fail flag  is
              passed  in  we  will  remove  the  device  from any active array
              instead of adding it.

              If a CONTAINER is passed to mdadm in this mode, then any  arrays
              within that container will be assembled and started.

       Manage This is for doing things to specific components of an array such
              as adding new spares and removing faulty devices.

       Misc   This is an 'everything else' mode that  supports  operations  on
              active  arrays,  operations on component devices such as erasing
              old superblocks, and information gathering operations.

       Auto-detect
              This mode does not act on a specific device or array, but rather
              it  requests  the  Linux  Kernel  to  activate any auto-detected
              arrays.

OPTIONS
Options for selecting a mode are:
       -A, --assemble
              Assemble a pre-existing array.

       -B, --build
              Build a legacy array without superblocks.

       -C, --create
              Create a new array.

       -F, --follow, --monitor
              Select Monitor mode.

       -G, --grow
              Change the size or shape of an active array.

       -I, --incremental
              Add/remove a single device to/from  an  appropriate  array,  and
              possibly start the array.

       --auto-detect
              Request  that  the kernel starts any auto-detected arrays.  This
              can only work if md is compiled into the kernel -- not if it  is
              a  module.  Arrays can be auto-detected by the kernel if all the
              components are in primary MS-DOS partitions with partition  type
              FD,  and  all  use  v0.90 metadata.  In-kernel autodetect is not
              recommended for new installations.  Using mdadm  to  detect  and
              assemble  arrays  --  possibly  in an initrd -- is substantially
              more flexible and should be preferred.

       If a device is given before any options, or  if  the  first  option  is
       --add, --fail, --remove, or --replace, then the MANAGE mode is assumed.
       Anything other than these will cause the Misc mode to be assumed.

Options that are not mode-specific are:
       -h, --help
              Display general help message or, after one of the above options,
              a mode-specific help message.

       --help-options
              Display  more  detailed help about command line parsing and some
              commonly used options.

       -V, --version
              Print version information for mdadm.

       -v, --verbose
              Be more verbose about what is happening.  This can be used twice
              to be extra-verbose.  The extra verbosity currently only affects
              --detail --scan and --examine --scan.

       -q, --quiet
              Avoid printing purely informative messages.   With  this,  mdadm
              will  be  silent  unless  there is something really important to
              report.

       -f, --force
              Be more forceful about  certain  operations.   See  the  various
              modes  for  the  exact  meaning of this option in different con-
              texts.

       -c, --config=
              Specify the  config  file  or  directory.   Default  is  to  use
              /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf  and  /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf.d, or if those
              are missing then /etc/mdadm.conf and /etc/mdadm.conf.d.  If  the
              config  file  given is partitions then nothing will be read, but
              mdadm will act as though the config file contained exactly
                  DEVICE partitions containers
              and will read /proc/partitions to find  a  list  of  devices  to
              scan,  and /proc/mdstat to find a list of containers to examine.
              If the word none is given for the config file, then  mdadm  will
              act as though the config file were empty.

              If the name given is of a directory, then mdadm will collect all
              the files contained in the  directory  with  a  name  ending  in
              .conf,  sort  them  lexically, and process all of those files as
              config files.

       -s, --scan
              Scan config file or /proc/mdstat for  missing  information.   In
              general,  this  option gives mdadm permission to get any missing
              information (like component devices, array devices, array  iden-
              tities,  and alert destination) from the configuration file (see
              previous option); one exception is MISC mode when using --detail
              or  --stop,  in  which  case  --scan says to get a list of array
              devices from /proc/mdstat.

       -e, --metadata=
              Declare the style of RAID metadata (superblock) to be used.  The
              default  is 1.2 for --create, and to guess for other operations.
              The default can be overridden by setting the metadata value  for
              the CREATE keyword in mdadm.conf.

              Options are:

              0, 0.90
                     Use  the  original  0.90  format superblock.  This format
                     limits arrays to 28 component devices and  limits  compo-
                     nent  devices of levels 1 and greater to 2 terabytes.  It
                     is also possible for there to be confusion about  whether
                     the superblock applies to a whole device or just the last
                     partition, if that partition starts on a 64K boundary.

              1, 1.0, 1.1, 1.2 default
                     Use the new version-1 format superblock.  This has  fewer
                     restrictions.   It can easily be moved between hosts with
                     different endian-ness, and a recovery  operation  can  be
                     checkpointed  and  restarted.  The different sub-versions
                     store  the  superblock  at  different  locations  on  the
                     device,  either  at  the end (for 1.0), at the start (for
                     1.1) or 4K from the start (for 1.2).  "1"  is  equivalent
                     to  "1.2" (the commonly preferred 1.x format).  "default"
                     is equivalent to "1.2".

              ddf    Use the "Industry Standard" DDF (Disk Data Format) format
                     defined  by  SNIA.  When creating a DDF array a CONTAINER
                     will be created, and normal arrays can be created in that
                     container.

              imsm   Use  the Intel(R) Matrix Storage Manager metadata format.
                     This creates a CONTAINER which is managed  in  a  similar
                     manner  to DDF, and is supported by an option-rom on some
                     platforms:

                     http://www.intel.com/design/chipsets/matrixstorage_sb.htm

       --homehost=
              This will override any HOMEHOST setting in the config  file  and
              provides the identity of the host which should be considered the
              home for any arrays.

              When creating an array, the homehost will  be  recorded  in  the
              metadata.  For version-1 superblocks, it will be prefixed to the
              array name.  For version-0.90 superblocks, part of the SHA1 hash
              of the hostname will be stored in the later half of the UUID.

              When  reporting  information  about an array, any array which is
              tagged for the given homehost will be reported as such.

              When using Auto-Assemble, only arrays tagged for the given home-
              host  will  be  allowed to use 'local' names (i.e. not ending in
              '_' followed by a digit string).  See below under Auto Assembly.

       --prefer=
              When mdadm needs to print the name  for  a  device  it  normally
              finds  the name in /dev which refers to the device and is short-
              est.  When a path component is given with  --prefer  mdadm  will
              prefer a longer name if it contains that component.  For example
              --prefer=by-uuid will prefer a name in a  subdirectory  of  /dev
              called by-uuid.

              This  functionality  is  currently only provided by --detail and
              --monitor.

For create, build, or grow:
       -n, --raid-devices=
              Specify the number of active devices in the array.   This,  plus
              the number of spare devices (see below) must equal the number of
              component-devices (including "missing" devices) that are  listed
              on the command line for --create.  Setting a value of 1 is prob-
              ably a mistake and so requires that --force be specified  first.
              A  value  of 1 will then be allowed for linear, multipath, RAID0
              and RAID1.  It is never allowed for RAID4, RAID5 or RAID6.
              This number can only be changed using --grow for  RAID1,  RAID4,
              RAID5  and  RAID6  arrays, and only on kernels which provide the
              necessary support.

       -x, --spare-devices=
              Specify the number of  spare  (eXtra)  devices  in  the  initial
              array.   Spares can also be added and removed later.  The number
              of component devices listed on the command line must  equal  the
              number of RAID devices plus the number of spare devices.

       -z, --size=
              Amount  (in  Kibibytes)  of space to use from each drive in RAID
              levels 1/4/5/6.  This must be a multiple of the chunk size,  and
              must  leave about 128Kb of space at the end of the drive for the
              RAID superblock.  If this is not specified (as  it  normally  is
              not)  the smallest drive (or partition) sets the size, though if
              there is a variance among the drives of greater than 1%, a warn-
              ing is issued.

              A  suffix  of  'M'  or 'G' can be given to indicate Megabytes or
              Gigabytes respectively.

              Sometimes a replacement drive can be a little smaller  than  the
              original  drives  though this should be minimised by IDEMA stan-
              dards.  Such a replacement drive will be  rejected  by  md.   To
              guard  against  this  it  can  be useful to set the initial size
              slightly smaller than the smaller device with the  aim  that  it
              will still be larger than any replacement.

              This  value can be set with --grow for RAID level 1/4/5/6 though
              CONTAINER based arrays such as those with IMSM metadata may  not
              be  able  to support this.  If the array was created with a size
              smaller than the currently active drives, the extra space can be
              accessed using --grow.  The size can be given as max which means
              to choose the largest size that fits on all current drives.

              Before reducing the size of the array (with --grow --size=)  you
              should make sure that space isn't needed.  If the device holds a
              filesystem, you would need to resize the filesystem to use  less
              space.

              After  reducing  the  array  size you should check that the data
              stored in the device is still available.  If the device holds  a
              filesystem,  then  an  'fsck'  of  the  filesystem  is a minimum
              requirement.  If there are problems the array can be made bigger
              again with no loss with another --grow --size= command.

              This value cannot be used when creating a CONTAINER such as with
              DDF and IMSM metadata, though it perfectly valid  when  creating
              an array inside a container.

       -Z, --array-size=
              This  is  only meaningful with --grow and its effect is not per-
              sistent: when the array is stopped  and  restarted  the  default
              array size will be restored.

              Setting  the  array-size  causes  the array to appear smaller to
              programs that access the  data.   This  is  particularly  needed
              before  reshaping  an  array so that it will be smaller.  As the
              reshape is not reversible, but setting the  size  with  --array-
              size is, it is required that the array size is reduced as appro-
              priate before the number of devices in the array is reduced.

              Before reducing the size of the array you should make sure  that
              space isn't needed.  If the device holds a filesystem, you would
              need to resize the filesystem to use less space.

              After reducing the array size you should  check  that  the  data
              stored  in the device is still available.  If the device holds a
              filesystem, then an  'fsck'  of  the  filesystem  is  a  minimum
              requirement.  If there are problems the array can be made bigger
              again with no loss with another --grow --array-size= command.

              A suffix of 'M' or 'G' can be given  to  indicate  Megabytes  or
              Gigabytes  respectively.   A  value of max restores the apparent
              size of the array to be whatever the real  amount  of  available
              space is.

       -c, --chunk=
              Specify  chunk  size of kibibytes.  The default when creating an
              array is 512KB.  To ensure compatibility with earlier  versions,
              the  default when Building and array with no persistent metadata
              is 64KB.  This is  only  meaningful  for  RAID0,  RAID4,  RAID5,
              RAID6, and RAID10.

              RAID4,  RAID5,  RAID6, and RAID10 require the chunk size to be a
              power of 2.  In any case it must be a multiple of 4KB.

              A suffix of 'M' or 'G' can be given  to  indicate  Megabytes  or
              Gigabytes respectively.

       --rounding=
              Specify  rounding  factor  for a Linear array.  The size of each
              component will be rounded down to a multiple of this size.  This
              is  a  synonym  for --chunk but highlights the different meaning
              for Linear as compared to other RAID levels.  The default is 64K
              if  a  kernel  earlier than 2.6.16 is in use, and is 0K (i.e. no
              rounding) in later kernels.

       -l, --level=
              Set RAID level.  When used with --create, options  are:  linear,
              raid0,  0,  stripe, raid1, 1, mirror, raid4, 4, raid5, 5, raid6,
              6, raid10, 10, multipath, mp, faulty, container.  Obviously some
              of these are synonymous.

              When  a CONTAINER metadata type is requested, only the container
              level is permitted, and it does not need to be explicitly given.

              When used with --build, only linear, stripe,  raid0,  0,  raid1,
              multipath, mp, and faulty are valid.

              Can  be used with --grow to change the RAID level in some cases.
              See LEVEL CHANGES below.

       -p, --layout=
              This option configures the  fine  details  of  data  layout  for
              RAID5,  RAID6, and RAID10 arrays, and controls the failure modes
              for faulty.

              The layout of the RAID5 parity block can be one of left-asymmet-
              ric,  left-symmetric, right-asymmetric, right-symmetric, la, ra,
              ls, rs.  The default is left-symmetric.

              It is also possible to cause RAID5 to use a RAID4-like layout by
              choosing parity-first, or parity-last.

              Finally    for   RAID5   there   are   DDF-compatible   layouts,
              ddf-zero-restart, ddf-N-restart, and ddf-N-continue.

              These same layouts are available for RAID6.  There  are  also  4
              layouts  that  will provide an intermediate stage for converting
              between RAID5 and RAID6.  These provide a layout which is  iden-
              tical  to  the  corresponding  RAID5  layout  on  the  first N-1
              devices, and has the 'Q' syndrome  (the  second  'parity'  block
              used by RAID6) on the last device.  These layouts are: left-sym-
              metric-6, right-symmetric-6,  left-asymmetric-6,  right-asymmet-
              ric-6, and parity-first-6.

              When setting the failure mode for level faulty, the options are:
              write-transient, wt, read-transient, rt,  write-persistent,  wp,
              read-persistent,  rp, write-all, read-fixable, rf, clear, flush,
              none.

              Each failure mode can be followed by a number, which is used  as
              a  period between fault generation.  Without a number, the fault
              is generated once on the first relevant request.  With a number,
              the  fault  will be generated after that many requests, and will
              continue to be generated every time the period elapses.

              Multiple failure modes can be current  simultaneously  by  using
              the --grow option to set subsequent failure modes.

              "clear"  or  "none"  will remove any pending or periodic failure
              modes, and "flush" will clear any persistent faults.

              Finally, the layout options for RAID10 are one of  'n',  'o'  or
              'f'  followed by a small number.  The default is 'n2'.  The sup-
              ported options are:

              'n' signals 'near' copies.  Multiple copies of  one  data  block
              are at similar offsets in different devices.

              'o'  signals  'offset'  copies.   Rather  than  the chunks being
              duplicated within a stripe, whole stripes are duplicated but are
              rotated  by  one  device  so  duplicate  blocks are on different
              devices.  Thus subsequent copies of a  block  are  in  the  next
              drive, and are one chunk further down.

              'f'  signals  'far'  copies (multiple copies have very different
              offsets).  See md(4) for more detail about 'near', 'offset', and
              'far'.

              The number is the number of copies of each datablock.  2 is nor-
              mal, 3 can be useful.  This number can be at most equal  to  the
              number  of  devices  in  the  array.  It does not need to divide
              evenly into that number (e.g. it is perfectly legal to  have  an
              'n2' layout for an array with an odd number of devices).

              When an array is converted between RAID5 and RAID6 an intermedi-
              ate RAID6 layout is used in which the second parity block (Q) is
              always  on  the  last  device.   To convert a RAID5 to RAID6 and
              leave it in this new layout (which does not require re-striping)
              use --layout=preserve.  This will try to avoid any restriping.

              The  converse  of this is --layout=normalise which will change a
              non-standard RAID6 layout into a more standard arrangement.

       --parity=
              same as --layout (thus explaining the p of -p).

       -b, --bitmap=
              Specify a file to store a  write-intent  bitmap  in.   The  file
              should  not  exist  unless --force is also given.  The same file
              should be provided when  assembling  the  array.   If  the  word
              internal  is  given, then the bitmap is stored with the metadata
              on the array, and so is replicated on all devices.  If the  word
              none  is given with --grow mode, then any bitmap that is present
              is removed.

              To help catch typing errors, the filename must contain at  least
              one slash ('/') if it is a real file (not 'internal' or 'none').

              Note:  external bitmaps are only known to work on ext2 and ext3.
              Storing bitmap files on other filesystems may result in  serious
              problems.

              When  creating  an  array  on  devices which are 100G or larger,
              mdadm automatically adds an internal bitmap as it  will  usually
              be beneficial.  This can be suppressed with --bitmap=none .

       --bitmap-chunk=
              Set  the  chunksize of the bitmap.  Each bit corresponds to that
              many Kilobytes of storage.  When using a file based bitmap,  the
              default  is  to  use  the  smallest  size that is at-least 4 and
              requires no more than 2^21 chunks.  When using an internal  bit-
              map,  the chunksize defaults to 64Meg, or larger if necessary to
              fit the bitmap into the available space.

              A suffix of 'M' or 'G' can be given  to  indicate  Megabytes  or
              Gigabytes respectively.

       -W, --write-mostly
              subsequent  devices listed in a --build, --create, or --add com-
              mand will be flagged as 'write-mostly'.  This is valid for RAID1
              only  and  means  that  the  'md' driver will avoid reading from
              these devices if at all possible.  This can be useful if mirror-
              ing over a slow link.

       --write-behind=
              Specify  that  write-behind  mode  should  be enabled (valid for
              RAID1 only).  If an argument is specified, it will set the maxi-
              mum  number of outstanding writes allowed.  The default value is
              256.  A write-intent bitmap is required in order to  use  write-
              behind mode, and write-behind is only attempted on drives marked
              as write-mostly.

       --assume-clean
              Tell mdadm that the array pre-existed and is known to be  clean.
              It  can be useful when trying to recover from a major failure as
              you can be sure that no data will be affected unless  you  actu-
              ally  write  to  the array.  It can also be used when creating a
              RAID1 or RAID10 if you want to avoid the initial resync, however
              this practice -- while normally safe -- is not recommended.  Use
              this only if you really know what you are doing.

              When the devices that will be part of a new  array  were  filled
              with zeros before creation the operator knows the array is actu-
              ally clean. If that is the case,  such  as  after  running  bad-
              blocks,  this  argument  can be used to tell mdadm the facts the
              operator knows.

              When an array is resized to a larger size  with  --grow  --size=
              the  new  space  is  normally resynced in that same way that the
              whole array is resynced at creation.  From  Linux  version  3.0,
              --assume-clean  can be used with that command to avoid the auto-
              matic resync.

       --backup-file=
              This is needed when --grow is used to  increase  the  number  of
              raid-devices  in  a RAID5 or RAID6 if there are no spare devices
              available, or to shrink, change RAID level or layout.   See  the
              GROW  MODE section below on RAID-DEVICES CHANGES.  The file must
              be stored on a separate device, not  on  the  RAID  array  being
              reshaped.

       --data-offset=
              Arrays  with  1.x  metadata can leave a gap between the start of
              the device and the start of array data.  This gap  can  be  used
              for  various  metadata.   The  start  of  data  is  known as the
              data-offset.  Normally an appropriate data  offset  is  computed
              automatically.   However  it  can be useful to set it explicitly
              such as when re-creating an array which was  originally  created
              using  a  different  version of mdadm which computed a different
              offset.

              Setting the offset explicitly over-rides the default.  The value
              given is in Kilobytes unless an 'M' or 'G' suffix is given.

              Since  Linux 3.4, --data-offset can also be used with --grow for
              some  RAID  levels  (initially  on  RAID10).   This  allows  the
              data-offset  to be changed as part of the reshape process.  When
              the data offset is changed, no backup file is  required  as  the
              difference in offsets is used to provide the same functionality.

              When  the  new offset is earlier than the old offset, the number
              of devices in the array cannot shrink.  When it is after the old
              offset, the number of devices in the array cannot increase.

              When  creating an array, --data-offset can be specified as vari-
              able.  In the case each member device is expected to have a off-
              set  appended  to the name, separated by a colon.  This makes it
              possible to recreate exactly an array  which  has  varying  data
              offsets (as can happen when different versions of mdadm are used
              to add different devices).

       --continue
              This option is complementary to the --freeze-reshape option  for
              assembly.  It is needed when --grow operation is interrupted and
              it is not restarted automatically due to --freeze-reshape  usage
              during array assembly.  This option is used together with -G , (
              --grow ) command and device for a pending reshape to be  contin-
              ued.   All  parameters required for reshape continuation will be
              read  from  array  metadata.   If  initial  --grow  command  had
              required  --backup-file=  option  to be set, continuation option
              will require to have exactly the same backup file given as well.

              Any other parameter passed together with --continue option  will
              be ignored.

       -N, --name=
              Set a name for the array.  This is currently only effective when
              creating an array with a version-1 superblock, or an array in  a
              DDF  container.  The name is a simple textual string that can be
              used to identify array components when assembling.  If  name  is
              needed  but  not specified, it is taken from the basename of the
              device that is being created.  e.g. when  creating  /dev/md/home
              the name will default to home.

       -R, --run
              Insist  that mdadm run the array, even if some of the components
              appear to be active in another array  or  filesystem.   Normally
              mdadm will ask for confirmation before including such components
              in an array.  This option causes that question to be suppressed.

       -f, --force
              Insist that mdadm accept the geometry and layout specified with-
              out  question.   Normally  mdadm  will  not allow creation of an
              array with only one device, and will try to create a RAID5 array
              with  one  missing  drive (as this makes the initial resync work
              faster).  With --force, mdadm will not try to be so clever.

       -o, --readonly
              Start the array read only rather than read-write as normal.   No
              writes will be allowed to the array, and no resync, recovery, or
              reshape will be started.

       -a, --auto{=yes,md,mdp,part,p}{NN}
              Instruct mdadm how to create the device file if needed, possibly
              allocating an unused minor number.  "md" causes a non-partition-
              able array to be used (though since Linux  2.6.28,  these  array
              devices are in fact partitionable).  "mdp", "part" or "p" causes
              a partitionable  array  (2.6  and  later)  to  be  used.   "yes"
              requires  the  named  md device to have a 'standard' format, and
              the type and minor number will be determined  from  this.   With
              mdadm  3.0,  device creation is normally left up to udev so this
              option is unlikely to be needed.  See DEVICE NAMES below.

              The argument can also come immediately after "-a".  e.g. "-ap".

              If --auto is not given on the command  line  or  in  the  config
              file, then the default will be --auto=yes.

              If  --scan  is  also given, then any auto= entries in the config
              file will override the --auto instruction given on  the  command
              line.

              For  partitionable arrays, mdadm will create the device file for
              the whole array and for the first  4  partitions.   A  different
              number  of partitions can be specified at the end of this option
              (e.g.  --auto=p7).  If the device name ends with  a  digit,  the
              partition  names add a 'p', and a number, e.g.  /dev/md/home1p3.
              If there is no trailing digit, then  the  partition  names  just
              have a number added, e.g.  /dev/md/scratch3.

              If  the md device name is in a 'standard' format as described in
              DEVICE NAMES, then it will be created, if  necessary,  with  the
              appropriate  device  number  based  on that name.  If the device
              name is not in one of these formats, then a unused device number
              will  be allocated.  The device number will be considered unused
              if there is no active array for that number,  and  there  is  no
              entry  in  /dev  for  that  number and with a non-standard name.
              Names that are not in 'standard'  format  are  only  allowed  in
              "/dev/md/".

              This is meaningful with --create or --build.

       -a, --add
              This option can be used in Grow mode in two cases.

              If the target array is a Linear array, then --add can be used to
              add one or more devices to the array.  They are simply catenated
              on  to  the end of the array.  Once added, the devices cannot be
              removed.

              If the --raid-disks option is being used to increase the  number
              of devices in an array, then --add can be used to add some extra
              devices to be included in the array.  In most cases this is  not
              needed  as  the  extra devices can be added as spares first, and
              then the number of  raid-disks  can  be  changed.   However  for
              RAID0,  it  is  not  possible to add spares.  So to increase the
              number of devices in a RAID0, it is necessary  to  set  the  new
              number  of devices, and to add the new devices, in the same com-
              mand.

For assemble:
       -u, --uuid=
              uuid of array to assemble.  Devices which don't have  this  uuid
              are excluded

       -m, --super-minor=
              Minor  number  of  device  that  array was created for.  Devices
              which don't have this minor number are excluded.  If you  create
              an  array  as  /dev/md1,  then  all superblocks will contain the
              minor number  1,  even  if  the  array  is  later  assembled  as
              /dev/md2.

              Giving the literal word "dev" for --super-minor will cause mdadm
              to use the minor number of the md device that  is  being  assem-
              bled.   e.g.  when  assembling  /dev/md0, --super-minor=dev will
              look for super blocks with a minor number of 0.

              --super-minor is only relevant for v0.90  metadata,  and  should
              not normally be used.  Using --uuid is much safer.

       -N, --name=
              Specify  the  name  of  the array to assemble.  This must be the
              name that was specified when creating the array.  It must either
              match  the  name  stored  in  the superblock exactly, or it must
              match with the current homehost prefixed to  the  start  of  the
              given name.

       -f, --force
              Assemble  the array even if the metadata on some devices appears
              to be out-of-date.  If mdadm cannot find enough working  devices
              to  start the array, but can find some devices that are recorded
              as having failed, then it will mark those devices as working  so
              that  the array can be started.  An array which requires --force
              to be started may contain data corruption.  Use it carefully.

       -R, --run
              Attempt to start the array even if fewer drives were given  than
              were  present  last  time the array was active.  Normally if not
              all the expected drives are found and --scan is not  used,  then
              the  array  will  be  assembled  but not started.  With --run an
              attempt will be made to start it anyway.

       --no-degraded
              This is the reverse of --run in that it inhibits the startup  of
              array  unless  all  expected  drives  are present.  This is only
              needed with --scan, and can be used if the physical  connections
              to devices are not as reliable as you would like.

       -a, --auto{=no,yes,md,mdp,part}
              See this option under Create and Build options.

       -b, --bitmap=
              Specify  the  bitmap file that was given when the array was cre-
              ated.  If an array has an internal bitmap, there is no  need  to
              specify this when assembling the array.

       --backup-file=
              If  --backup-file was used while reshaping an array (e.g. chang-
              ing number of devices or chunk size) and the system crashed dur-
              ing  the  critical  section, then the same --backup-file must be
              presented to --assemble to allow possibly corrupted data  to  be
              restored, and the reshape to be completed.

       --invalid-backup
              If the file needed for the above option is not available for any
              reason an empty file can be given together with this  option  to
              indicate that the backup file is invalid.  In this case the data
              that was being rearranged at the time  of  the  crash  could  be
              irrecoverably  lost,  but  the  rest  of  the array may still be
              recoverable.  This option should only be used as a  last  resort
              if there is no way to recover the backup file.

       -U, --update=
              Update the superblock on each device while assembling the array.
              The argument given to this flag can be  one  of  sparc2.2,  sum-
              maries,  uuid,  naml,  homehost,  resync, byteorder, devicesize,
              no-bitmap, bbl, no-, metadata, or super-minor.

              The sparc2.2 option will adjust the superblock of an array  what
              was  created on a Sparc machine running a patched 2.2 Linux ker-
              nel.  This kernel got the alignment of part  of  the  superblock
              wrong.   You can use the --examine --sparc2.2 option to mdadm to
              see what effect this would have.

              The super-minor option will update the preferred minor field  on
              each  superblock  to  match  the minor number of the array being
              assembled.  This can be useful if --examine reports a  different
              "Preferred  Minor"  to --detail.  In some cases this update will
              be performed automatically by the kernel driver.  In  particular
              the  update happens automatically at the first write to an array
              with redundancy (RAID level 1 or greater) on a  2.6  (or  later)
              kernel.

              The uuid option will change the uuid of the array.  If a UUID is
              given with the --uuid option that UUID will be  used  as  a  new
              UUID  and  will  NOT be used to help identify the devices in the
              array.  If no --uuid is given, a random UUID is chosen.

              The name option will change the name of the array as  stored  in
              the   superblock.    This   is   only  supported  for  version-1
              superblocks.

              The homehost option will change the homehost as recorded in  the
              superblock.   For  version-0  superblocks,  this  is the same as
              updating the UUID.  For  version-1  superblocks,  this  involves
              updating the name.

              The  resync option will cause the array to be marked dirty mean-
              ing that any redundancy in the array  (e.g.  parity  for  RAID5,
              copies  for  RAID1)  may be incorrect.  This will cause the RAID
              system to perform a "resync" pass to make sure that  all  redun-
              dant information is correct.

              The  byteorder option allows arrays to be moved between machines
              with different byte-order.  When assembling such  an  array  for
              the  first  time  after  a  move, giving --update=byteorder will
              cause mdadm  to  expect  superblocks  to  have  their  byteorder
              reversed,  and  will  correct  that  order before assembling the
              array.   This  is  only  valid  with  original  (Version   0.90)
              superblocks.

              The   summaries   option  will  correct  the  summaries  in  the
              superblock.  That is  the  counts  of  total,  working,  active,
              failed, and spare devices.

              The devicesize option will rarely be of use.  It applies to ver-
              sion 1.1 and 1.2 metadata only (where the  metadata  is  at  the
              start  of  the  device)  and  is  only useful when the component
              device has changed size (typically become larger).  The  version
              1  metadata records the amount of the device that can be used to
              store data, so if a device in a version 1.1 or 1.2 array becomes
              larger,  the metadata will still be visible, but the extra space
              will not.  In this case it might be useful to assemble the array
              with  --update=devicesize.   This  will cause mdadm to determine
              the maximum usable amount of space on each device and update the
              relevant field in the metadata.

              The metadata option only works on v0.90 metadata arrays and will
              convert them to v1.0 metadata.  The  array  must  not  be  dirty
              (i.e.  it  must  not  need a sync) and it must not have a write-
              intent bitmap.

              The old metadata will remain on the  devices,  but  will  appear
              older  than the new metadata and so will usually be ignored. The
              old metadata (or indeed the new metadata) can be removed by giv-
              ing the appropriate --metadata= option to --zero-superblock.

              The  no-bitmap  option can be used when an array has an internal
              bitmap which is corrupt in some way so that assembling the array
              normally  fails.   It  will  cause  any  internal  bitmap  to be
              ignored.

              The bbl option will reserve space in each device for a bad block
              list.   This  will  be 4K in size and positioned near the end of
              any free space between the superblock and the data.

              The no-bbl option will cause any reservation of space for a  bad
              block  list  to  be  removed.   If  the  bad block list contains
              entries, this will fail, as removing the list could  cause  data
              corruption.

       --freeze-reshape
              Option  is intended to be used in start-up scripts during initrd
              boot phase.  When array under reshape is assembled during initrd
              phase,  this option stops reshape after reshape critical section
              is being restored. This happens before file system pivot  opera-
              tion and avoids loss of file system context.  Losing file system
              context would cause reshape to be broken.

              Reshape can be continued later using the --continue  option  for
              the grow command.

For Manage mode:
       -t, --test
              Unless  a  more  serious  error occurred, mdadm will exit with a
              status of 2 if no changes were made to the array  and  0  if  at
              least  one change was made.  This can be useful when an indirect
              specifier such  as  missing,  detached  or  faulty  is  used  in
              requesting  an operation on the array.  --test will report fail-
              ure if these specifiers didn't find any match.

       -a, --add
              hot-add listed devices.  If a device appears  to  have  recently
              been  part  of the array (possibly it failed or was removed) the
              device is re-added as described in  the  next  point.   If  that
              fails  or  the device was never part of the array, the device is
              added as a hot-spare.  If the array is degraded, it will immedi-
              ately start to rebuild data onto that spare.

              Note  that this and the following options are only meaningful on
              array with redundancy.  They don't apply to RAID0 or Linear.

       --re-add
              re-add a device that was previously removed from an  array.   If
              the  metadata  on  the device reports that it is a member of the
              array, and the slot that it  used  is  still  vacant,  then  the
              device  will  be  added  back to the array in the same position.
              This will normally cause the data for that device to  be  recov-
              ered.   However  based  on  the  event  count on the device, the
              recovery may only require sections that  are  flagged  a  write-
              intent bitmap to be recovered or may not require any recovery at
              all.

              When used on an array that has no metadata (i.e.  it  was  built
              with  --build)  it will be assumed that bitmap-based recovery is
              enough to make the device fully consistent with the array.

              When used with v1.x metadata, --re-add  can  be  accompanied  by
              --update=devicesize,  --update=bbl, or --update=no-bbl.  See the
              description of these option when used in Assemble  mode  for  an
              explanation of their use.

              If  the device name given is missing then mdadm will try to find
              any device that looks like it should be part of  the  array  but
              isn't and will try to re-add all such devices.

              If  the  device  name  given  is faulty then mdadm will find all
              devices in the array that are marked  faulty,  remove  them  and
              attempt  to  immediately re-add them.  This can be useful if you
              are certain that the reason for failure has been resolved.

       -r, --remove
              remove listed devices.  They must  not  be  active.   i.e.  they
              should be failed or spare devices.

              As well as the name of a device file (e.g.  /dev/sda1) the words
              failed, detached and names like set-A can be given to  --remove.
              The  first  causes  all failed device to be removed.  The second
              causes any device which is no longer  connected  to  the  system
              (i.e  an  'open'  returns  ENXIO) to be removed.  The third will
              remove a set as describe below under --fail.

       -f, --fail
              Mark listed devices as faulty.  As well as the name of a  device
              file,  the  word detached or a set name like set-A can be given.
              The former will cause any device that has been detached from the
              system to be marked as failed.  It can then be removed.

              For  RAID10 arrays where the number of copies evenly divides the
              number of devices, the devices can be conceptually divided  into
              sets  where each set contains a single complete copy of the data
              on the array.  Sometimes a RAID10 array will  be  configured  so
              that  these  sets are on separate controllers.  In this case all
              the devices in one set can be failed by giving a name like set-A
              or  set-B  to --fail.  The appropriate set names are reported by
              --detail.

       --set-faulty
              same as --fail.

       --replace
              Mark listed devices as requiring  replacement.   As  soon  as  a
              spare  is  available,  it  will  be rebuilt and will replace the
              marked device.  This is similar to marking a device  as  faulty,
              but the device remains in service during the recovery process to
              increase  resilience  against  multiple  failures.    When   the
              replacement process finishes, the replaced device will be marked
              as faulty.

       --with This can follow a list of --replace devices.  The devices listed
              after  --with will be preferentially used to replace the devices
              listed after --replace.  These  device  must  already  be  spare
              devices in the array.

       --write-mostly
              Subsequent  devices  that  are  added  or re-added will have the
              'write-mostly' flag set.  This is only valid for RAID1 and means
              that  the  'md'  driver will avoid reading from these devices if
              possible.

       --readwrite
              Subsequent devices that are added  or  re-added  will  have  the
              'write-mostly' flag cleared.

       Each  of  these  options  requires  that the first device listed is the
       array to be acted upon, and the remainder are component devices  to  be
       added,  removed,  marked  as faulty, etc.  Several different operations
       can be specified for different devices, e.g.
            mdadm /dev/md0 --add /dev/sda1 --fail /dev/sdb1 --remove /dev/sdb1
       Each operation applies to all devices listed until the next operation.

       If an array is using a write-intent bitmap,  then  devices  which  have
       been removed can be re-added in a way that avoids a full reconstruction
       but instead just updates the blocks that have changed since the  device
       was removed.  For arrays with persistent metadata (superblocks) this is
       done automatically.  For arrays created with --build mdadm needs to  be
       told that this device we removed recently with --re-add.

       Devices  can  only  be  removed from an array if they are not in active
       use, i.e. that must be spares or failed devices.  To remove  an  active
       device, it must first be marked as faulty.

For Misc mode:
       -Q, --query
              Examine  a device to see (1) if it is an md device and (2) if it
              is a component of an md array.  Information about what  is  dis-
              covered is presented.

       -D, --detail
              Print details of one or more md devices.

       --detail-platform
              Print  details  of  the platform's RAID capabilities (firmware /
              hardware topology) for a given metadata format. If used  without
              argument,  mdadm  will  scan  all  controllers looking for their
              capabilities. Otherwise, mdadm will only look at the  controller
              specified  by  the argument in form of an absolute filepath or a
              link, e.g.  /sys/devices/pci0000:00/0000:00:1f.2.

       -Y, --export
              When used with --detail , --detail-platform or --examine, output
              will  be  formatted  as key=value pairs for easy import into the
              environment.

       -E, --examine
              Print contents of the metadata stored on  the  named  device(s).
              Note  the  contrast  between  --examine and --detail.  --examine
              applies to devices which  are  components  of  an  array,  while
              --detail applies to a whole array which is currently active.

       --sparc2.2
              If an array was created on a SPARC machine with a 2.2 Linux ker-
              nel patched with RAID support, the  superblock  will  have  been
              created incorrectly, or at least incompatibly with 2.4 and later
              kernels.  Using the --sparc2.2 flag with --examine will fix  the
              superblock  before  displaying  it.   If  this appears to do the
              right thing, then the array can be successfully assembled  using
              --assemble --update=sparc2.2.

       -X, --examine-bitmap
              Report  information about a bitmap file.  The argument is either
              an external bitmap file or an array  component  in  case  of  an
              internal  bitmap.   Note  that  running  this on an array device
              (e.g.  /dev/md0) does not report the bitmap for that array.

       --examine-badblocks
              List the bad-blocks recorded for the  device,  if  a  bad-blocks
              list  has been configured.  Currently only 1.x metadata supports
              bad-blocks lists.

       --dump=directory

       --restore=directory
              Save metadata from lists devices, or restore metadata to  listed
              devices.

       -R, --run
              start  a  partially assembled array.  If --assemble did not find
              enough devices to fully start the array,  it  might  leaving  it
              partially  assembled.   If  you  wish, you can then use --run to
              start the array in degraded mode.

       -S, --stop
              deactivate array, releasing all resources.

       -o, --readonly
              mark array as readonly.

       -w, --readwrite
              mark array as readwrite.

       --zero-superblock
              If the device contains a valid md superblock, the block is over-
              written with zeros.  With --force the block where the superblock
              would be is overwritten even if it doesn't appear to be valid.

       --kill-subarray=
              If the device is a container and the argument to --kill-subarray
              specifies an inactive subarray in the container, then the subar-
              ray is deleted.  Deleting all subarrays will  leave  an  'empty-
              container'   or   spare   superblock   on   the   drives.    See
              --zero-superblock for completely removing  a  superblock.   Note
              that  some formats depend on the subarray index for generating a
              UUID, this command will fail if it would change the UUID  of  an
              active subarray.

       --update-subarray=
              If the device is a container and the argument to --update-subar-
              ray specifies a subarray  in  the  container,  then  attempt  to
              update  the given superblock field in the subarray. See below in
              MISC MODE for details.

       -t, --test
              When used with --detail, the exit status  of  mdadm  is  set  to
              reflect  the  status  of the device.  See below in MISC MODE for
              details.

       -W, --wait
              For each md device given, wait  for  any  resync,  recovery,  or
              reshape  activity to finish before returning.  mdadm will return
              with success if it actually waited for every device listed, oth-
              erwise it will return failure.

       --wait-clean
              For  each  md  device  given,  or each device in /proc/mdstat if
              --scan is given, arrange for the array to  be  marked  clean  as
              soon  as  possible.  mdadm will return with success if the array
              uses external metadata and we successfully waited.   For  native
              arrays  this  returns  immediately  as the kernel handles dirty-
              clean transitions at shutdown.  No action is taken if  safe-mode
              handling is disabled.

For Incremental Assembly mode:
       --rebuild-map, -r
              Rebuild  the  map  file (/run/mdadm/map) that mdadm uses to help
              track which arrays are currently being assembled.

       --run, -R
              Run any array assembled as soon as a minimal number  of  devices
              are  available,  rather  than waiting until all expected devices
              are present.

       --scan, -s
              Only meaningful with -R this will scan the map file  for  arrays
              that are being incrementally assembled and will try to start any
              that are not already started.  If any such array  is  listed  in
              mdadm.conf  as requiring an external bitmap, that bitmap will be
              attached first.

       --fail, -f
              This allows the hot-plug system  to  remove  devices  that  have
              fully  disappeared from the kernel.  It will first fail and then
              remove the device from any array it belongs to.  The device name
              given  should  be a kernel device name such as "sda", not a name
              in /dev.

       --path=
              Only used with --fail.  The 'path' given  will  be  recorded  so
              that  if  a  new  device  appears at the same location it can be
              automatically added to the same array.  This allows  the  failed
              device  to  be  automatically  replaced  by a new device without
              metadata if it appears at specified path.   This option is  nor-
              mally only set by a udev script.

For Monitor mode:
       -m, --mail
              Give a mail address to send alerts to.

       -p, --program, --alert
              Give a program to be run whenever an event is detected.

       -y, --syslog
              Cause  all events to be reported through 'syslog'.  The messages
              have facility of 'daemon' and varying priorities.

       -d, --delay
              Give a delay in seconds.  mdadm polls the  md  arrays  and  then
              waits this many seconds before polling again.  The default is 60
              seconds.  Since 2.6.16, there is no need to reduce this  as  the
              kernel alerts mdadm immediately when there is any change.

       -r, --increment
              Give  a  percentage  increment.   mdadm  will generate RebuildNN
              events with the given percentage increment.

       -f, --daemonise
              Tell mdadm to run as a background daemon if it decides to  moni-
              tor  anything.  This causes it to fork and run in the child, and
              to disconnect from the terminal.  The process id of the child is
              written  to  stdout.  This is useful with --scan which will only
              continue monitoring if a mail address or alert program is  found
              in the config file.

       -i, --pid-file
              When  mdadm is running in daemon mode, write the pid of the dae-
              mon process to the specified file, instead  of  printing  it  on
              standard output.

       -1, --oneshot
              Check  arrays only once.  This will generate NewArray events and
              more significantly DegradedArray and SparesMissing events.  Run-
              ning
                      mdadm --monitor --scan -1
              from  a  cron  script  will  ensure  regular notification of any
              degraded arrays.

       -t, --test
              Generate a TestMessage alert for every array found  at  startup.
              This  alert  gets  mailed and passed to the alert program.  This
              can be used for testing that alert message do get  through  suc-
              cessfully.

       --no-sharing
              This  inhibits  the  functionality  for  moving  spares  between
              arrays.  Only one monitoring process  started  with  --scan  but
              without  this flag is allowed, otherwise the two could interfere
              with each other.

ASSEMBLE MODE
       Usage: mdadm --assemble md-device options-and-component-devices...

       Usage: mdadm --assemble --scan md-devices-and-options...

       Usage: mdadm --assemble --scan options...

       This usage assembles one or more RAID arrays from  pre-existing  compo-
       nents.  For each array, mdadm needs to know the md device, the identity
       of the array, and a number of component-devices.  These can be found in
       a number of ways.

       In  the first usage example (without the --scan) the first device given
       is the md device.  In the second usage example, all devices listed  are
       treated  as  md devices and assembly is attempted.  In the third (where
       no devices are listed) all md devices that are listed in the configura-
       tion  file are assembled.  If no arrays are described by the configura-
       tion file, then any arrays that can be found on unused devices will  be
       assembled.

       If  precisely one device is listed, but --scan is not given, then mdadm
       acts as though --scan was given and identity information  is  extracted
       from the configuration file.

       The identity can be given with the --uuid option, the --name option, or
       the --super-minor option, will be taken from the  md-device  record  in
       the  config  file,  or  will be taken from the super block of the first
       component-device listed on the command line.

       Devices can be given on the --assemble command line or  in  the  config
       file.   Only  devices  which  have  an md superblock which contains the
       right identity will be considered for any array.

       The config file is only used  if  explicitly  named  with  --config  or
       requested  with  (a  possibly  implicit)  --scan.   In  the later case,
       /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf or /etc/mdadm.conf is used.

       If --scan is not given, then the config file will only be used to  find
       the identity of md arrays.

       Normally  the  array will be started after it is assembled.  However if
       --scan is not given and not all expected drives were listed,  then  the
       array  is  not started (to guard against usage errors).  To insist that
       the array be started in this case (as may work for RAID1, 4, 5,  6,  or
       10), give the --run flag.

       If udev is active, mdadm does not create any entries in /dev but leaves
       that to udev.  It does record information in /run/mdadm/map which  will
       allow udev to choose the correct name.

       If  mdadm  detects  that  udev  is  not  configured, it will create the
       devices in /dev itself.

       In Linux kernels prior to version 2.6.28 there were two distinctly dif-
       ferent  types  of  md  devices that could be created: one that could be
       partitioned using standard partitioning tools and one that  could  not.
       Since  2.6.28  that  distinction  is no longer relevant as both type of
       devices can be partitioned.  mdadm will normally create the  type  that
       originally could not be partitioned as it has a well defined major num-
       ber (9).

       Prior to 2.6.28, it is important that mdadm chooses the correct type of
       array  device  to  use.  This can be controlled with the --auto option.
       In particular, a value of "mdp" or "part" or "p" tells mdadm to  use  a
       partitionable device rather than the default.

       In  the  no-udev  case,  the value given to --auto can be suffixed by a
       number.  This tells mdadm to create that number  of  partition  devices
       rather than the default of 4.

       The  value  given to --auto can also be given in the configuration file
       as a word starting auto= on the ARRAY line for the relevant array.

   Auto Assembly
       When --assemble is used with --scan and no devices  are  listed,  mdadm
       will  first  attempt  to  assemble  all the arrays listed in the config
       file.

       If no arrays  are  listed  in  the  config  (other  than  those  marked
       )  it  will  look  through  the  available devices for possible
       arrays and will try to assemble anything that it finds.   Arrays  which
       are  tagged  as  belonging  to the given homehost will be assembled and
       started normally.  Arrays which do not obviously belong  to  this  host
       are  given names that are expected not to conflict with anything local,
       and are started "read-auto" so that nothing is written  to  any  device
       until the array is written to. i.e.  automatic resync etc is delayed.

       If  mdadm  finds a consistent set of devices that look like they should
       comprise an array, and if the superblock is tagged as belonging to  the
       given  home host, it will automatically choose a device name and try to
       assemble the array.  If the array uses version-0.90 metadata, then  the
       minor  number as recorded in the superblock is used to create a name in
       /dev/md/ so for example /dev/md/3.  If the array uses  version-1  meta-
       data,  then  the name from the superblock is used to similarly create a
       name in /dev/md/ (the name will have any 'host' prefix stripped first).

       This behaviour can be modified by the AUTO line in the mdadm.conf  con-
       figuration  file.   This  line can indicate that specific metadata type
       should, or should not, be automatically  assembled.   If  an  array  is
       found  which is not listed in mdadm.conf and has a metadata format that
       is denied by the AUTO line, then it will not be  assembled.   The  AUTO
       line  can  also  request  that  all arrays identified as being for this
       homehost should be assembled regardless of their  metadata  type.   See
       mdadm.conf(5) for further details.

       Note:  Auto  assembly cannot be used for assembling and activating some
       arrays which are undergoing reshape.  In particular as the  backup-file
       cannot  be  given, any reshape which requires a backup-file to continue
       cannot be started by auto assembly.  An array which is growing to  more
       devices  and  has  passed  the  critical section can be assembled using
       auto-assembly.

BUILD MODE
       Usage: mdadm --build  md-device  --chunk=X  --level=Y  --raid-devices=Z
                   devices

       This  usage  is similar to --create.  The difference is that it creates
       an array without a superblock.  With these arrays there is  no  differ-
       ence  between  initially creating the array and subsequently assembling
       the array, except that hopefully there is useful data there in the sec-
       ond case.

       The  level  may  raid0, linear, raid1, raid10, multipath, or faulty, or
       one of their synonyms.  All devices must be listed and the  array  will
       be  started  once  complete.   It  will  often  be  appropriate  to use
       --assume-clean with levels raid1 or raid10.

CREATE MODE
       Usage: mdadm --create md-device --chunk=X --level=Y
                   --raid-devices=Z devices

       This usage will initialise a new md array, associate some devices  with
       it, and activate the array.

       The  named  device  will normally not exist when mdadm --create is run,
       but will be created by udev once the array becomes active.

       As devices are added, they are checked to  see  if  they  contain  RAID
       superblocks  or filesystems.  They are also checked to see if the vari-
       ance in device size exceeds 1%.

       If any discrepancy is found, the array will not automatically  be  run,
       though the presence of a --run can override this caution.

       To  create a "degraded" array in which some devices are missing, simply
       give the word "missing" in place of a device  name.   This  will  cause
       mdadm  to leave the corresponding slot in the array empty.  For a RAID4
       or RAID5 array at most one slot can be "missing"; for a RAID6 array  at
       most  two  slots.   For a RAID1 array, only one real device needs to be
       given.  All of the others can be "missing".

       When creating a RAID5 array, mdadm will automatically create a degraded
       array  with  an  extra spare drive.  This is because building the spare
       into a degraded array is in general faster than resyncing the parity on
       a  non-degraded,  but not clean, array.  This feature can be overridden
       with the --force option.

       When creating an array with version-1 metadata a name for the array  is
       required.   If  this  is  not  given with the --name option, mdadm will
       choose a name based on the last component of the  name  of  the  device
       being  created.   So if /dev/md3 is being created, then the name 3 will
       be chosen.  If /dev/md/home is being created, then the name  home  will
       be used.

       When  creating  a  partition  based array, using mdadm with version-1.x
       metadata, the partition type should be set to 0xDA (non fs-data).  This
       type selection allows for greater precision since using any other [RAID
       auto-detect (0xFD) or a GNU/Linux partition (0x83)], might create prob-
       lems in the event of array recovery through a live cdrom.

       A  new array will normally get a randomly assigned 128bit UUID which is
       very likely to be unique.  If you have a specific need, you can  choose
       a UUID for the array by giving the --uuid= option.  Be warned that cre-
       ating two arrays with the same UUID is a recipe  for  disaster.   Also,
       using  --uuid=  when  creating a v0.90 array will silently override any
       --homehost= setting.

       If the array type supports a write-intent bitmap, and if the devices in
       the  array  exceed  100G  is size, an internal write-intent bitmap will
       automatically be added unless some other option is explicitly requested
       with  the  --bitmap  option.   In  any  case space for a bitmap will be
       reserved so that one can be added layer with --grow --bitmap=internal.

       If the metadata type supports it (currently only 1.x  metadata),  space
       will be allocated to store a bad block list.  This allows a modest num-
       ber of bad blocks to be recorded, allowing the drive to remain in  ser-
       vice while only partially functional.

       When creating an array within a CONTAINER mdadm can be given either the
       list of devices to use, or simply the name of the container.  The  for-
       mer case gives control over which devices in the container will be used
       for the array.  The latter case allows mdadm  to  automatically  choose
       which devices to use based on how much spare space is available.

       The General Management options that are valid with --create are:

       --run  insist  on running the array even if some devices look like they
              might be in use.

       --readonly
              start the array readonly -- not supported yet.

MANAGE MODE
       Usage: mdadm device options... devices...

       This usage will allow individual devices in  an  array  to  be  failed,
       removed  or  added.  It is possible to perform multiple operations with
       on command.  For example:
         mdadm /dev/md0 -f /dev/hda1 -r /dev/hda1 -a /dev/hda1
       will firstly mark /dev/hda1 as faulty in /dev/md0 and will then  remove
       it  from the array and finally add it back in as a spare.  However only
       one md array can be affected by a single command.

       When a device is added to an active array, mdadm checks to  see  if  it
       has  metadata on it which suggests that it was recently a member of the
       array.  If it does, it tries to "re-add" the  device.   If  there  have
       been  no  changes  since  the device was removed, or if the array has a
       write-intent bitmap which has recorded  whatever  changes  there  were,
       then  the device will immediately become a full member of the array and
       those differences recorded in the bitmap will be resolved.

MISC MODE
       Usage: mdadm options ...  devices ...

       MISC mode includes a number of distinct operations that operate on dis-
       tinct devices.  The operations are:

       --query
              The  device  is examined to see if it is (1) an active md array,
              or (2) a component of an md array.  The  information  discovered
              is reported.

       --detail
              The  device should be an active md device.  mdadm will display a
              detailed description of the array.  --brief or --scan will cause
              the output to be less detailed and the format to be suitable for
              inclusion in mdadm.conf.  The exit status of mdadm will normally
              be  0  unless  mdadm  failed to get useful information about the
              device(s); however, if the --test option is given, then the exit
              status will be:

              0      The array is functioning normally.

              1      The array has at least one failed device.

              2      The  array  has  multiple  failed devices such that it is
                     unusable.

              4      There was an error while trying to get information  about
                     the device.

       --detail-platform
              Print  detail  of  the  platform's RAID capabilities (firmware /
              hardware topology).  If the metadata is  specified  with  -e  or
              --metadata= then the return status will be:

              0      metadata  successfully enumerated its platform components
                     on this system

              1      metadata is platform independent

              2      metadata failed to find its platform components  on  this
                     system

       --update-subarray=
              If the device is a container and the argument to --update-subar-
              ray specifies a subarray  in  the  container,  then  attempt  to
              update  the  given superblock field in the subarray.  Similar to
              updating an array in "assemble" mode, the  field  to  update  is
              selected by -U or --update= option.  Currently only name is sup-
              ported.

              The name option updates the subarray name in  the  metadata,  it
              may  not  affect the device node name or the device node symlink
              until the subarray is  re-assembled.   If  updating  name  would
              change the UUID of an active subarray this operation is blocked,
              and the command will end in an error.

       --examine
              The device should be a component of an  md  array.   mdadm  will
              read  the  md superblock of the device and display the contents.
              If --brief or --scan is given, then multiple  devices  that  are
              components of the one array are grouped together and reported in
              a single entry suitable for inclusion in mdadm.conf.

              Having --scan without listing any devices will cause all devices
              listed in the config file to be examined.

       --dump=directory
              If  the device contains RAID metadata, a file will be created in
              the directory and the metadata will be written to it.  The  file
              will  be the same size as the device and have the metadata writ-
              ten in the file at the same locate that it exists in the device.
              However the file will be "sparse" so that only those blocks con-
              taining metadata will be allocated. The total space used will be
              small.

              The file name used in the directory will be the base name of the
              device.   Further if any links appear in  /dev/disk/by-id  which
              point to the device, then hard links to the file will be created
              in directory based on these by-id names.

              Multiple devices can be listed and their metadata  will  all  be
              stored in the one directory.

       --restore=directory
              This  is the reverse of --dump.  mdadm will locate a file in the
              directory that has a name appropriate for the given  device  and
              will restore metadata from it.  Names that match /dev/disk/by-id
              names are preferred, however if two of those refer to  different
              files,  mdadm  will  not  choose between them but will abort the
              operation.

              If a file name is given instead of a directory then  mdadm  will
              restore  from  that file to a single device, always provided the
              size of the file matches that of the device, and the  file  con-
              tains valid metadata.

       --stop The  devices  should  be  active md arrays which will be deacti-
              vated, as long as they are not currently in use.

       --run  This will fully activate a partially assembled md array.

       --readonly
              This will mark an active array as read-only, providing  that  it
              is not currently being used.

       --readwrite
              This will change a readonly array back to being read/write.

       --scan For all operations except --examine, --scan will cause the oper-
              ation to be applied to all arrays listed in  /proc/mdstat.   For
              --examine,  --scan  causes all devices listed in the config file
              to be examined.

       -b, --brief
              Be less verbose.  This is  used  with  --detail  and  --examine.
              Using --brief with --verbose gives an intermediate level of ver-
              bosity.

MONITOR MODE
       Usage: mdadm --monitor options... devices...

       This usage causes mdadm to periodically poll a number of md arrays  and
       to report on any events noticed.  mdadm will never exit once it decides
       that there are arrays to be checked, so it should normally  be  run  in
       the background.

       As  well  as  reporting  events,  mdadm may move a spare drive from one
       array to another if they are in the same spare-group or domain  and  if
       the destination array has a failed drive but no spares.

       If  any devices are listed on the command line, mdadm will only monitor
       those devices.  Otherwise all arrays listed in the  configuration  file
       will  be  monitored.   Further,  if  --scan is given, then any other md
       devices that appear in /proc/mdstat will also be monitored.

       The result of monitoring the arrays is the generation of events.  These
       events  are  passed  to  a  separate  program (if specified) and may be
       mailed to a given E-mail address.

       When passing events to a program, the program  is  run  once  for  each
       event,  and  is  given  2 or 3 command-line arguments: the first is the
       name of the event (see below), the second is the name of the md  device
       which  is  affected,  and  the third is the name of a related device if
       relevant (such as a component device that has failed).

       If --scan is given, then a program or an E-mail address must be  speci-
       fied  on the command line or in the config file.  If neither are avail-
       able, then mdadm will not monitor anything.  Without --scan, mdadm will
       continue  monitoring  as long as something was found to monitor.  If no
       program or email is given, then each event is reported to stdout.

       The different events are:

           DeviceDisappeared
                  An md array which previously was configured  appears  to  no
                  longer be configured. (syslog priority: Critical)

                  If mdadm was told to monitor an array which is RAID0 or Lin-
                  ear, then it will report DeviceDisappeared  with  the  extra
                  information  Wrong-Level.   This is because RAID0 and Linear
                  do not support the device-failed, hot-spare and resync oper-
                  ations which are monitored.

           RebuildStarted
                  An  md array started reconstruction. (syslog priority: Warn-
                  ing)

           RebuildNN
                  Where NN is a two-digit number (ie. 05, 48). This  indicates
                  that  rebuild has passed that many percent of the total. The
                  events are generated with fixed increment since 0. Increment
                  size  may be specified with a commandline option (default is
                  20). (syslog priority: Warning)

           RebuildFinished
                  An md array that was  rebuilding,  isn't  any  more,  either
                  because  it finished normally or was aborted. (syslog prior-
                  ity: Warning)

           Fail   An active component device of an array has  been  marked  as
                  faulty. (syslog priority: Critical)

           FailSpare
                  A  spare component device which was being rebuilt to replace
                  a faulty device has failed. (syslog priority: Critical)

           SpareActive
                  A spare component device which was being rebuilt to  replace
                  a  faulty  device has been successfully rebuilt and has been
                  made active.  (syslog priority: Info)

           NewArray
                  A new md array has been detected in the  /proc/mdstat  file.
                  (syslog priority: Info)

           DegradedArray
                  A  newly noticed array appears to be degraded.  This message
                  is not generated when mdadm notices a  drive  failure  which
                  causes  degradation,  but  only  when  mdadm notices that an
                  array is degraded when it first  sees  the  array.   (syslog
                  priority: Critical)

           MoveSpare
                  A spare drive has been moved from one array in a spare-group
                  or domain to another to allow a failed drive to be replaced.
                  (syslog priority: Info)

           SparesMissing
                  If  mdadm  has been told, via the config file, that an array
                  should have a certain number of  spare  devices,  and  mdadm
                  detects  that  it  has  fewer than this number when it first
                  sees the array, it  will  report  a  SparesMissing  message.
                  (syslog priority: Warning)

           TestMessage
                  An  array  was  found  at  startup,  and the --test flag was
                  given.  (syslog priority: Info)

       Only Fail,  FailSpare,  DegradedArray,  SparesMissing  and  TestMessage
       cause  Email  to be sent.  All events cause the program to be run.  The
       program is run with two or three arguments: the event name,  the  array
       device and possibly a second device.

       Each event has an associated array device (e.g.  /dev/md1) and possibly
       a second device.  For  Fail,  FailSpare,  and  SpareActive  the  second
       device  is  the  relevant  component  device.  For MoveSpare the second
       device is the array that the spare was moved from.

       For mdadm to move spares from  one  array  to  another,  the  different
       arrays  need to be labeled with the same spare-group or the spares must
       be allowed to migrate through matching POLICY domains in the configura-
       tion  file.   The spare-group name can be any string; it is only neces-
       sary that different spare groups use different names.

       When mdadm detects that an array in a  spare  group  has  fewer  active
       devices  than  necessary  for  the  complete  array,  and  has no spare
       devices, it will look for another array in the same  spare  group  that
       has  a  full  complement  of  working  drive and a spare.  It will then
       attempt to remove the spare from the second drive and  add  it  to  the
       first.   If the removal succeeds but the adding fails, then it is added
       back to the original array.

       If the spare group for a degraded array is not defined, mdadm will look
       at the rules of spare migration specified by POLICY lines in mdadm.conf
       and then follow similar steps as above if a matching spare is found.

GROW MODE
       The GROW mode is used for changing the  size  or  shape  of  an  active
       array.  For this to work, the kernel must support the necessary change.
       Various types of growth are being added during 2.6 development.

       Currently the supported changes include

       o   change the "size" attribute for RAID1, RAID4, RAID5 and RAID6.

       o   increase or decrease the "raid-devices" attribute of RAID0,  RAID1,
           RAID4, RAID5, and RAID6.

       o   change  the chunk-size and layout of RAID0, RAID4, RAID5, RAID6 and
           RAID10.

       o   convert between RAID1 and RAID5, between RAID5 and  RAID6,  between
           RAID0,  RAID4,  and  RAID5,  and  between  RAID0 and RAID10 (in the
           near-2 mode).

       o   add a write-intent bitmap to any array which  supports  these  bit-
           maps, or remove a write-intent bitmap from such an array.

       Using  GROW  on containers is currently supported only for Intel's IMSM
       container format.   The  number  of  devices  in  a  container  can  be
       increased  - which affects all arrays in the container - or an array in
       a container can be converted between levels where those levels are sup-
       ported  by  the  container,  and  the  conversion is on of those listed
       above.  Resizing arrays in an IMSM container with --grow --size is  not
       yet supported.

       Grow  functionality  (e.g. expand a number of raid devices) for Intel's
       IMSM container format has an experimental status. It is guarded by  the
       MDADM_EXPERIMENTAL  environment variable which must be set to '1' for a
       GROW command to succeed.  This is for the following reasons:

       1.     Intel's native IMSM check-pointing  is  not  fully  tested  yet.
              This can causes IMSM incompatibility during the grow process: an
              array which is growing cannot roam between Microsoft  Windows(R)
              and Linux systems.

       2.     Interrupting a grow operation is not recommended, because it has
              not been fully tested for Intel's IMSM container format yet.

       Note: Intel's native checkpointing doesn't use --backup-file option and
       it is transparent for assembly feature.

   SIZE CHANGES
       Normally  when  an array is built the "size" is taken from the smallest
       of the drives.  If all the small drives in an  arrays  are,  one  at  a
       time,  removed  and replaced with larger drives, then you could have an
       array of large drives with only a small amount used.   In  this  situa-
       tion,  changing  the "size" with "GROW" mode will allow the extra space
       to start being used.  If the size is increased in this way, a  "resync"
       process will start to make sure the new parts of the array are synchro-
       nised.

       Note that when an array changes size, any filesystem that may be stored
       in the array will not automatically grow or shrink to use or vacate the
       space.  The filesystem will need to be explicitly told to use the extra
       space  after  growing,  or  to  reduce  its size prior to shrinking the
       array.

       Also the size of an array cannot be changed while it has an active bit-
       map.   If an array has a bitmap, it must be removed before the size can
       be changed. Once the change is complete a new bitmap can be created.

   RAID-DEVICES CHANGES
       A RAID1 array can work with  any  number  of  devices  from  1  upwards
       (though  1  is  not very useful).  There may be times which you want to
       increase or decrease the number of active devices.  Note that  this  is
       different to hot-add or hot-remove which changes the number of inactive
       devices.

       When reducing the number of devices in a RAID1 array, the  slots  which
       are  to be removed from the array must already be vacant.  That is, the
       devices which were in those slots must be failed and removed.

       When the number of devices  is  increased,  any  hot  spares  that  are
       present will be activated immediately.

       Changing  the number of active devices in a RAID5 or RAID6 is much more
       effort.  Every block in the array will need to be read and written back
       to  a  new location.  From 2.6.17, the Linux Kernel is able to increase
       the number of devices in a RAID5 safely, including restarting an inter-
       rupted "reshape".  From 2.6.31, the Linux Kernel is able to increase or
       decrease the number of devices in a RAID5 or RAID6.

       From 2.6.35, the Linux Kernel is able to convert a RAID0 in to a  RAID4
       or RAID5.  mdadm uses this functionality and the ability to add devices
       to a RAID4 to allow devices to be added to a RAID0.  When requested  to
       do  this,  mdadm  will  convert the RAID0 to a RAID4, add the necessary
       disks and make the reshape happen, and then convert the RAID4  back  to
       RAID0.

       When  decreasing the number of devices, the size of the array will also
       decrease.  If there was data in the array, it could get  destroyed  and
       this  is not reversible, so you should firstly shrink the filesystem on
       the array to fit within the new size.  To help prevent accidents, mdadm
       requires  that  the  size  of  the  array be decreased first with mdadm
       --grow --array-size.  This is a reversible change  which  simply  makes
       the  end of the array inaccessible.  The integrity of any data can then
       be checked before the non-reversible reduction in the number of devices
       is request.

       When  relocating  the  first few stripes on a RAID5 or RAID6, it is not
       possible to keep the data on  disk  completely  consistent  and  crash-
       proof.   To  provide  the required safety, mdadm disables writes to the
       array while this "critical section" is reshaped, and takes a backup  of
       the data that is in that section.  For grows, this backup may be stored
       in any spare devices that the array has, however it can also be  stored
       in  a  separate  file  specified  with the --backup-file option, and is
       required to be specified for shrinks, RAID  level  changes  and  layout
       changes.   If this option is used, and the system does crash during the
       critical period, the same file must be passed to --assemble to  restore
       the  backup and reassemble the array.  When shrinking rather than grow-
       ing the array, the reshape is done from the end towards the  beginning,
       so the "critical section" is at the end of the reshape.

   LEVEL CHANGES
       Changing  the RAID level of any array happens instantaneously.  However
       in the RAID5 to RAID6 case this requires a non-standard layout  of  the
       RAID6  data, and in the RAID6 to RAID5 case that non-standard layout is
       required before the change can be accomplished.   So  while  the  level
       change is instant, the accompanying layout change can take quite a long
       time.  A --backup-file is required.  If the array is not simultaneously
       being  grown  or  shrunk, so that the array size will remain the same -
       for example, reshaping a 3-drive RAID5  into  a  4-drive  RAID6  -  the
       backup file will be used not just for a "cricital section" but through-
       out the reshape operation, as described below under LAYOUT CHANGES.

   CHUNK-SIZE AND LAYOUT CHANGES
       Changing the chunk-size of layout without also changing the  number  of
       devices  as  the same time will involve re-writing all blocks in-place.
       To ensure against data loss in the case of  a  crash,  a  --backup-file
       must  be  provided for these changes.  Small sections of the array will
       be copied to the backup file while they  are  being  rearranged.   This
       means that all the data is copied twice, once to the backup and once to
       the new layout on the array, so this  type  of  reshape  will  go  very
       slowly.

       If  the reshape is interrupted for any reason, this backup file must be
       made available to mdadm --assemble so the  array  can  be  reassembled.
       Consequently the file cannot be stored on the device being reshaped.

   BITMAP CHANGES
       A  write-intent  bitmap  can  be  added  to, or removed from, an active
       array.  Either internal bitmaps, or bitmaps stored in a separate  file,
       can  be added.  Note that if you add a bitmap stored in a file which is
       in a filesystem that is on the RAID array being  affected,  the  system
       will deadlock.  The bitmap must be on a separate filesystem.

INCREMENTAL MODE
       Usage: mdadm --incremental [--run] [--quiet] component-device

       Usage: mdadm --incremental --fail component-device

       Usage: mdadm --incremental --rebuild-map

       Usage: mdadm --incremental --run --scan

       This mode is designed to be used in conjunction with a device discovery
       system.  As devices are found in a system, they can be passed to  mdadm
       --incremental to be conditionally added to an appropriate array.

       Conversely,  it  can  also  be used with the --fail flag to do just the
       opposite and find whatever array a particular device  is  part  of  and
       remove the device from that array.

       If  the  device passed is a CONTAINER device created by a previous call
       to mdadm, then rather than trying to add that device to an  array,  all
       the arrays described by the metadata of the container will be started.

       mdadm  performs a number of tests to determine if the device is part of
       an array, and which array it should be  part  of.   If  an  appropriate
       array  is  found, or can be created, mdadm adds the device to the array
       and conditionally starts the array.

       Note that mdadm will normally only add devices to an array  which  were
       previously  working (active or spare) parts of that array.  The support
       for automatic inclusion of a  new  drive  as  a  spare  in  some  array
       requires a configuration through POLICY in config file.

       The tests that mdadm makes are as follow:

       +      Is the device permitted by mdadm.conf?  That is, is it listed in
              a DEVICES line in that file.  If  DEVICES  is  absent  then  the
              default it to allow any device.  Similar if DEVICES contains the
              special word partitions then any device is  allowed.   Otherwise
              the  device  name  given to mdadm must match one of the names or
              patterns in a DEVICES line.

       +      Does the device have a valid md superblock?  If a specific meta-
              data  version  is requested with --metadata or -e then only that
              style of metadata is accepted, otherwise mdadm finds  any  known
              version of metadata.  If no md metadata is found, the device may
              be still added to an array as a spare if POLICY allows.

       mdadm keeps a list  of  arrays  that  it  has  partially  assembled  in
       /run/mdadm/map.   If  no array exists which matches the metadata on the
       new device, mdadm must choose a device name and unit number.   It  does
       this  based  on  any  name  given in mdadm.conf or any name information
       stored in the metadata.  If this name suggests a unit number, that num-
       ber  will  be  used, otherwise a free unit number will be chosen.  Nor-
       mally mdadm will prefer to create a partitionable array, however if the
       CREATE  line  in  mdadm.conf suggests that a non-partitionable array is
       preferred, that will be honoured.

       If the array is not found in the config file and its metadata does  not
       identify  it  as  belonging to the "homehost", then mdadm will choose a
       name for the array which is certain not  to  conflict  with  any  array
       which  does  belong to this host.  It does this be adding an underscore
       and a small number to the name preferred by the metadata.

       Once an appropriate array is found or created and the device is  added,
       mdadm  must  decide  if the array is ready to be started.  It will nor-
       mally compare the number of available (non-spare) devices to the number
       of  devices that the metadata suggests need to be active.  If there are
       at least that many, the array will be started.  This means that if  any
       devices are missing the array will not be restarted.

       As an alternative, --run may be passed to mdadm in which case the array
       will be run as soon as there are enough devices present for the data to
       be  accessible.   For  a  RAID1,  that  means one device will start the
       array.  For a clean RAID5, the array will be started as soon as all but
       one drive is present.

       Note  that  neither  of these approaches is really ideal.  If it can be
       known that all device discovery has completed, then
          mdadm -IRs
       can be run which will try to start all arrays that are being  incremen-
       tally  assembled.   They  are started in "read-auto" mode in which they
       are read-only until the first write request.  This means that no  meta-
       data  updates  are  made  and no attempt at resync or recovery happens.
       Further devices that are found before the  first  write  can  still  be
       added safely.

ENVIRONMENT
       This  section  describes  environment  variables  that affect how mdadm
       operates.

       MDADM_NO_MDMON
              Setting this value to 1 will prevent  mdadm  from  automatically
              launching mdmon.  This variable is intended primarily for debug-
              ging mdadm/mdmon.

       MDADM_NO_UDEV
              Normally, mdadm does not create any device nodes  in  /dev,  but
              leaves that task to udev.  If udev appears not to be configured,
              or if this environment variable is set to '1',  the  mdadm  will
              create and devices that are needed.

       IMSM_NO_PLATFORM
              A  key value of IMSM metadata is that it allows interoperability
              with boot ROMs on Intel platforms, and with other major  operat-
              ing  systems.  Consequently, mdadm will only allow an IMSM array
              to be created or modified if detects that it is  running  on  an
              Intel  platform which supports IMSM, and supports the particular
              configuration of IMSM that is being requested (some  functional-
              ity requires newer OROM support).

              These  checks can be suppressed by setting IMSM_NO_PLATFORM=1 in
              the environment.  This can be useful for testing or for disaster
              recovery.  You should be aware that interoperability may be com-
              promised by setting this value.

       MDADM_CONF_AUTO
              Any string given in this variable is added to the start  of  the
              AUTO  line in the config file, or treated as the whole AUTO line
              if none is given.  It can be used to  disable  certain  metadata
              types when mdadm is called from a boot script.  For example
                  export MDADM_CONF_AUTO='-ddf -imsm'
              will  make  sure  that mdadm does not automatically assemble any
              DDF or IMSM arrays that are found.  This can be useful  on  sys-
              tems configured to manage such arrays with dmraid.

EXAMPLES
         mdadm --query /dev/name-of-device
       This  will  find  out  if a given device is a RAID array, or is part of
       one, and will provide brief information about the device.

         mdadm --assemble --scan
       This will assemble and start all arrays listed in the  standard  config
       file.  This command will typically go in a system startup file.

         mdadm --stop --scan
       This will shut down all arrays that can be shut down (i.e. are not cur-
       rently in use).  This will typically go in a system shutdown script.

         mdadm --follow --scan --delay=120
       If (and only if) there is an Email address  or  program  given  in  the
       standard  config  file, then monitor the status of all arrays listed in
       that file by polling them ever 2 minutes.

         mdadm --create /dev/md0 --level=1 --raid-devices=2 /dev/hd[ac]1
       Create /dev/md0 as a RAID1 array consisting of /dev/hda1 and /dev/hdc1.

         echo 'DEVICE /dev/hd*[0-9] /dev/sd*[0-9]' > mdadm.conf
         mdadm --detail --scan >> mdadm.conf
       This will create a  prototype  config  file  that  describes  currently
       active  arrays that are known to be made from partitions of IDE or SCSI
       drives.  This file should be reviewed before being used as it may  con-
       tain unwanted detail.

         echo 'DEVICE /dev/hd[a-z] /dev/sd*[a-z]' > mdadm.conf
         mdadm --examine --scan --config=mdadm.conf >> mdadm.conf
       This  will  find  arrays which could be assembled from existing IDE and
       SCSI whole drives (not partitions), and store the  information  in  the
       format  of a config file.  This file is very likely to contain unwanted
       detail, particularly the devices= entries.  It should be  reviewed  and
       edited before being used as an actual config file.

         mdadm --examine --brief --scan --config=partitions
         mdadm -Ebsc partitions
       Create  a  list  of devices by reading /proc/partitions, scan these for
       RAID superblocks, and printout a brief listing of all that were found.

         mdadm -Ac partitions -m 0 /dev/md0
       Scan all partitions and devices listed in /proc/partitions and assemble
       /dev/md0  out  of  all such devices with a RAID superblock with a minor
       number of 0.

         mdadm --monitor --scan --daemonise > /run/mdadm/mon.pid
       If config file contains a mail address or alert program, run  mdadm  in
       the  background  in monitor mode monitoring all md devices.  Also write
       pid of mdadm daemon to /run/mdadm/mon.pid.

         mdadm -Iq /dev/somedevice
       Try to incorporate newly discovered device into some array as appropri-
       ate.

         mdadm --incremental --rebuild-map --run --scan
       Rebuild  the array map from any current arrays, and then start any that
       can be started.

         mdadm /dev/md4 --fail detached --remove detached
       Any devices which are components of /dev/md4 will be marked  as  faulty
       and then remove from the array.

         mdadm --grow /dev/md4 --level=6 --backup-file=/root/backup-md4
       The  array  /dev/md4 which is currently a RAID5 array will be converted
       to RAID6.  There should normally already be a spare drive  attached  to
       the array as a RAID6 needs one more drive than a matching RAID5.

         mdadm --create /dev/md/ddf --metadata=ddf --raid-disks 6 /dev/sd[a-f]
       Create a DDF array over 6 devices.

         mdadm --create /dev/md/home -n3 -l5 -z 30000000 /dev/md/ddf
       Create a RAID5 array over any 3 devices in the given DDF set.  Use only
       30 gigabytes of each device.

         mdadm -A /dev/md/ddf1 /dev/sd[a-f]
       Assemble a pre-exist ddf array.

         mdadm -I /dev/md/ddf1
       Assemble all arrays contained in the  ddf  array,  assigning  names  as
       appropriate.

         mdadm --create --help
       Provide help about the Create mode.

         mdadm --config --help
       Provide help about the format of the config file.

         mdadm --help
       Provide general help.

FILES
   /proc/mdstat
       If  you're using the /proc filesystem, /proc/mdstat lists all active md
       devices with information about them.  mdadm uses this  to  find  arrays
       when  --scan is given in Misc mode, and to monitor array reconstruction
       on Monitor mode.

   /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf (or /etc/mdadm.conf)
       The config file lists which devices may be scanned to see if they  con-
       tain  MD  super  block,  and  gives identifying information (e.g. UUID)
       about known MD arrays.  See mdadm.conf(5) for more details.

   /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf.d (or /etc/mdadm.conf.d)
       A directory containing configuration files which are  read  in  lexical
       order.

   /run/mdadm/map
       When  --incremental  mode is used, this file gets a list of arrays cur-
       rently being created.

DEVICE NAMES
       mdadm understand two sorts of names for array devices.

       The first is the so-called 'standard' format name,  which  matches  the
       names used by the kernel and which appear in /proc/mdstat.

       The  second  sort  can  be  freely chosen, but must reside in /dev/md/.
       When giving a device name to mdadm to  create  or  assemble  an  array,
       either full path name such as /dev/md0 or /dev/md/home can be given, or
       just the suffix of the second sort of name, such as home can be given.

       When mdadm chooses device names  during  auto-assembly  or  incremental
       assembly,  it  will sometimes add a small sequence number to the end of
       the name to avoid conflicted between multiple arrays that have the same
       name.  If mdadm can reasonably determine that the array really is meant
       for this host, either by a hostname in the metadata, or by the presence
       of the array in mdadm.conf, then it will leave off the suffix if possi-
       ble.  Also if the homehost is specified as  mdadm will only use
       a  suffix  if  a  different array of the same name already exists or is
       listed in the config file.

       The standard names for non-partitioned arrays  (the  only  sort  of  md
       array available in 2.4 and earlier) are of the form

              /dev/mdNN

       where  NN is a number.  The standard names for partitionable arrays (as
       available from 2.6 onwards) are of the form:

              /dev/md_dNN

       Partition numbers should be indicated by adding "pMM"  to  these,  thus
       "/dev/md/d1p2".

       From  kernel version 2.6.28 the "non-partitioned array" can actually be
       partitioned.  So the "md_dNN" names are no longer  needed,  and  parti-
       tions such as "/dev/mdNNpXX" are possible.

       From  kernel version 2.6.29 standard names can be non-numeric following
       the form:

              /dev/md_XXX

       where XXX is any string.  These names are supported by mdadm since ver-
       sion 3.3 provided they are enabled in mdadm.conf.

NOTE
       mdadm was previously known as mdctl.

SEE ALSO
       For  further  information  on mdadm usage, MD and the various levels of
       RAID, see:

              http://raid.wiki.kernel.org/

       (based upon Jakob Ostergaard's Software-RAID.HOWTO)

       The latest version of mdadm should always be available from

              http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/raid/mdadm/

       Related man pages:

       mdmon(8), mdadm.conf(5), md(4).

v3.3                                                                  MDADM(8)



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