SHREDSection: User Commands (1)
Updated: February 2022
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NAMEshred - overwrite a file to hide its contents, and optionally delete it
SYNOPSISshred [,OPTION/]... ,FILE/...
Overwrite the specified FILE(s) repeatedly, in order to make it harder for even very expensive hardware probing to recover the data.
If FILE is -, shred standard output.
Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.
- -f, --force
- change permissions to allow writing if necessary
- -n, --iterations=,N/
- overwrite N times instead of the default (3)
- get random bytes from FILE
- -s, --size=,N/
- shred this many bytes (suffixes like K, M, G accepted)
- deallocate and remove file after overwriting
- like -u but give control on HOW to delete; See below
- -v, --verbose
- show progress
- -x, --exact
- do not round file sizes up to the next full block;
- this is the default for non-regular files
- -z, --zero
- add a final overwrite with zeros to hide shredding
- display this help and exit
- output version information and exit
Delete FILE(s) if --remove (-u) is specified. The default is not to remove the files because it is common to operate on device files like ,/dev/hda/, and those files usually should not be removed. The optional HOW parameter indicates how to remove a directory entry: 'unlink' => use a standard unlink call. 'wipe' => also first obfuscate bytes in the name. 'wipesync' => also sync each obfuscated byte to disk. The default mode is 'wipesync', but note it can be expensive.
CAUTION: shred assumes the file system and hardware overwrite data in place. Although this is common, many platforms operate otherwise. Also, backups and mirrors may contain unremovable copies that will let a shredded file be recovered later. See the GNU coreutils manual for details.
AUTHORWritten by Colin Plumb.
REPORTING BUGSGNU coreutils online help: <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/>
Report any translation bugs to <https://translationproject.org/team/>
COPYRIGHTCopyright © 2020 Free Software Foundation, Inc. License GPLv3+: GNU GPL version 3 or later <https://gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html>.
This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it. There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.
SEE ALSOFull documentation <https://www.gnu.org/software/coreutils/shred>
or available locally via: info '(coreutils) shred invocation'
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