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rsync(1)                                                              rsync(1)

NAME
       rsync - a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

SYNOPSIS
       Local:  rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [DEST]

       Access via remote shell:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST:SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       Access via rsync daemon:
         Pull: rsync [OPTION...] [USER@]HOST::SRC... [DEST]
               rsync [OPTION...] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC... [DEST]
         Push: rsync [OPTION...] SRC... [USER@]HOST::DEST
               rsync [OPTION...] SRC... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

       Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files
       instead of copying.

DESCRIPTION
       Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file  copying  tool.   It
       can  copy  locally,  to/from  another  host  over  any remote shell, or
       to/from a remote rsync daemon.  It offers a  large  number  of  options
       that  control  every  aspect  of  its behavior and permit very flexible
       specification of the set of files to be copied.  It is famous  for  its
       delta-transfer  algorithm,  which  reduces the amount of data sent over
       the network by sending only the differences between  the  source  files
       and  the  existing  files in the destination.  Rsync is widely used for
       backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

       Rsync finds files that need to be transferred  using  a  "quick  check"
       algorithm  (by  default) that looks for files that have changed in size
       or  in  last-modified  time.   Any  changes  in  the  other   preserved
       attributes  (as  requested by options) are made on the destination file
       directly when the quick check indicates that the file's data  does  not
       need to be updated.

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups, and permis-
              sions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files  that  CVS  would
              ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including ssh or rsh

       o      does not require super-user privileges

       o      pipelining of file transfers to minimize latency costs

       o      support  for anonymous or authenticated rsync daemons (ideal for
              mirroring)

GENERAL
       Rsync copies files either to or from a remote host, or locally  on  the
       current  host  (it  does  not  support copying files between two remote
       hosts).

       There are two different ways for rsync  to  contact  a  remote  system:
       using  a  remote-shell program as the transport (such as ssh or rsh) or
       contacting an rsync daemon directly via TCP.  The  remote-shell  trans-
       port  is used whenever the source or destination path contains a single
       colon (:) separator after a host specification.   Contacting  an  rsync
       daemon  directly happens when the source or destination path contains a
       double colon (::) separator after a  host  specification,  OR  when  an
       rsync://  URL  is  specified (see also the "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES
       VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION" section for an exception to this  latter
       rule).

       As a special case, if a single source arg is specified without a desti-
       nation, the files are listed in an output format similar to "ls -l".

       As expected, if neither the source or destination path specify a remote
       host, the copy occurs locally (see also the --list-only option).

       Rsync  refers  to the local side as the "client" and the remote side as
       the "server".  Don't confuse "server" with an rsync daemon -- a  daemon
       is  always  a  server,  but  a  server  can  be  either  a  daemon or a
       remote-shell spawned process.

SETUP
       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once installed, you can use rsync to any machine that  you  can  access
       via a remote shell (as well as some that you can access using the rsync
       daemon-mode protocol).  For remote transfers, a modern rsync  uses  ssh
       for  its  communications, but it may have been configured to use a dif-
       ferent remote shell by default, such as rsh or remsh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either by using the  -e
       command line option, or by setting the RSYNC_RSH environment variable.

       Note  that  rsync  must be installed on both the source and destination
       machines.

USAGE
       You use rsync in the same way you use rcp. You must  specify  a  source
       and a destination, one of which may be remote.

       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is with some examples:

              rsync -t *.c foo:src/

       This would transfer all files matching the pattern *.c from the current
       directory to the directory src on the machine foo. If any of the  files
       already  exist on the remote system then the rsync remote-update proto-
       col is used to update the file by sending only the differences  in  the
       data.   Note  that  the expansion of wildcards on the commandline (*.c)
       into a list of files is handled by the shell before it runs  rsync  and
       not  by  rsync  itself  (exactly the same as all other posix-style pro-
       grams).

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       This would recursively transfer all files from the directory src/bar on
       the  machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar directory on the local machine.
       The files are transferred in "archive" mode, which  ensures  that  sym-
       bolic  links,  devices,  attributes,  permissions, ownerships, etc. are
       preserved in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be  used  to
       reduce the size of data portions of the transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       A  trailing slash on the source changes this behavior to avoid creating
       an additional directory level at the destination.  You can think  of  a
       trailing / on a source as meaning "copy the contents of this directory"
       as opposed to "copy the directory by  name",  but  in  both  cases  the
       attributes  of the containing directory are transferred to the contain-
       ing directory on the destination.  In other words, each of the  follow-
       ing  commands copies the files in the same way, including their setting
       of the attributes of /dest/foo:

              rsync -av /src/foo /dest
              rsync -av /src/foo/ /dest/foo

       Note also that host and module  references  don't  require  a  trailing
       slash to copy the contents of the default directory.  For example, both
       of these copy the remote directory's contents into "/dest":

              rsync -av host: /dest
              rsync -av host::module /dest

       You can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both  the  source  and
       destination  don't have a ':' in the name. In this case it behaves like
       an improved copy command.

       Finally, you can list all the (listable) modules available from a  par-
       ticular rsync daemon by leaving off the module name:

              rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       See the following section for more details.

ADVANCED USAGE
       The  syntax for requesting multiple files from a remote host is done by
       specifying additional remote-host args in the same style as the  first,
       or with the hostname omitted.  For instance, all these work:

              rsync -av host:file1 :file2 host:file{3,4} /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file{1,2} host::modname/file3 /dest/
              rsync -av host::modname/file1 ::modname/file{3,4}

       Older  versions  of rsync required using quoted spaces in the SRC, like
       these examples:

              rsync -av host:'dir1/file1 dir2/file2' /dest
              rsync host::'modname/dir1/file1 modname/dir2/file2' /dest

       This word-splitting still works (by default) in the latest  rsync,  but
       is not as easy to use as the first method.

       If  you  need  to transfer a filename that contains whitespace, you can
       either specify the --protect-args (-s) option, or you'll need to escape
       the  whitespace  in  a  way that the remote shell will understand.  For
       instance:

              rsync -av host:'file\ name\ with\ spaces' /dest

CONNECTING TO AN RSYNC DAEMON
       It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as  the  trans-
       port.  In this case you will directly connect to a remote rsync daemon,
       typically using TCP port 873.  (This obviously requires the  daemon  to
       be running on the remote system, so refer to the STARTING AN RSYNC DAE-
       MON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS section below for information on that.)

       Using rsync in this way is the same as using it  with  a  remote  shell
       except that:

       o      you  either  use  a double colon :: instead of a single colon to
              separate the hostname from the path, or you use an rsync:// URL.

       o      the first word of the "path" is actually a module name.

       o      the remote daemon may print a message of the day when  you  con-
              nect.

       o      if  you  specify no path name on the remote daemon then the list
              of accessible paths on the daemon will be shown.

       o      if you specify no local destination then a listing of the speci-
              fied files on the remote daemon is provided.

       o      you must not specify the --rsh (-e) option.

       An example that copies all the files in a remote module named "src":

           rsync -av host::src /dest

       Some  modules  on  the remote daemon may require authentication. If so,
       you will receive a password prompt when you connect. You can avoid  the
       password  prompt  by setting the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD to
       the password you want to use or using the --password-file option.  This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING:  On  some  systems  environment  variables  are visible to all
       users. On those systems using --password-file is recommended.

       You may establish the connection via a web proxy by setting  the  envi-
       ronment  variable  RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair pointing to your
       web proxy.  Note that your web proxy's configuration must support proxy
       connections to port 873.

       You  may  also establish a daemon connection using a program as a proxy
       by setting the environment variable RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG to the  commands
       you  wish  to  run  in place of making a direct socket connection.  The
       string may contain the escape "%H" to represent the hostname  specified
       in  the  rsync  command  (so  use "%%" if you need a single "%" in your
       string).  For example:

         export RSYNC_CONNECT_PROG='ssh proxyhost nc %H 873'
         rsync -av targethost1::module/src/ /dest/
         rsync -av rsync:://targethost2/module/src/ /dest/

       The command specified above uses ssh to run nc (netcat) on a proxyhost,
       which  forwards all data to port 873 (the rsync daemon) on the targeth-
       ost (%H).

USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CONNECTION
       It is sometimes useful to use various features of an rsync daemon (such
       as  named modules) without actually allowing any new socket connections
       into  a  system  (other  than  what  is  already  required   to   allow
       remote-shell  access).   Rsync  supports  connecting  to a host using a
       remote shell and  then  spawning  a  single-use  "daemon"  server  that
       expects  to  read  its  config file in the home dir of the remote user.
       This can be useful if you want to  encrypt  a  daemon-style  transfer's
       data,  but since the daemon is started up fresh by the remote user, you
       may not be able to use features such as chroot or change the  uid  used
       by the daemon.  (For another way to encrypt a daemon transfer, consider
       using ssh to tunnel a local port to a remote machine  and  configure  a
       normal  rsync daemon on that remote host to only allow connections from
       "localhost".)

       From the user's perspective, a daemon transfer via a remote-shell  con-
       nection uses nearly the same command-line syntax as a normal rsync-dae-
       mon transfer, with the only exception being that  you  must  explicitly
       set the remote shell program on the command-line with the --rsh=COMMAND
       option.  (Setting the RSYNC_RSH in the environment  will  not  turn  on
       this functionality.)  For example:

           rsync -av --rsh=ssh host::module /dest

       If you need to specify a different remote-shell user, keep in mind that
       the user@ prefix in front of the  host  is  specifying  the  rsync-user
       value  (for  a  module  that requires user-based authentication).  This
       means that you must give the '-l user' option to  ssh  when  specifying
       the remote-shell, as in this example that uses the short version of the
       --rsh option:

           rsync -av -e "ssh -l ssh-user" rsync-user@host::module /dest

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the "rsync-user" will  be
       used to log-in to the "module".

STARTING AN RSYNC DAEMON TO ACCEPT CONNECTIONS
       In order to connect to an rsync daemon, the remote system needs to have
       a daemon already running (or it needs to have configured something like
       inetd to spawn an rsync daemon for incoming connections on a particular
       port).  For full information on how to start a daemon  that  will  han-
       dling  incoming  socket connections, see the rsyncd.conf(5) man page --
       that is the config file for  the  daemon,  and  it  contains  the  full
       details for how to run the daemon (including stand-alone and inetd con-
       figurations).

       If you're using one of the remote-shell transports  for  the  transfer,
       there is no need to manually start an rsync daemon.

SORTED TRANSFER ORDER
       Rsync  always  sorts the specified filenames into its internal transfer
       list.  This handles the merging together of the contents of identically
       named directories, makes it easy to remove duplicate filenames, and may
       confuse someone when the files are transferred  in  a  different  order
       than what was given on the command-line.

       If  you  need  a  particular  file  to be transferred prior to another,
       either separate the files into different rsync calls, or consider using
       --delay-updates  (which  doesn't  affect the sorted transfer order, but
       does make the final file-updating phase happen much more rapidly).

EXAMPLES
       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife's home directory, which consists  of  large  MS  Word
       files and mail folders, I use a cron job that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP connection to a duplicate directory on my machine
       "arvidsjaur".

       To synchronize my samba source trees I use the following Makefile  tar-
       gets:

           get:
                   rsync -avuzb --exclude '*~' samba:samba/ .
           put:
                   rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/
           sync: get put

       this  allows  me  to  sync with a CVS directory at the other end of the
       connection. I then do CVS operations on the remote machine, which saves
       a lot of time as the remote CVS protocol isn't very efficient.

       I mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites with the com-
       mand:

       rsync -az -e ssh --delete ~ftp/pub/samba nimbus:"~ftp/pub/tridge"

       This is launched from cron every few hours.

OPTIONS SUMMARY
       Here is a short summary of the options available in rsync. Please refer
       to the detailed description below for a complete description.

        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
            --info=FLAGS            fine-grained informational verbosity
            --debug=FLAGS           fine-grained debug verbosity
            --msgs2stderr           special output handling for debugging
        -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
            --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
        -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
        -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
            --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
            --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
        -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
            --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
            --suffix=SUFFIX         backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
        -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
            --inplace               update destination files in-place
            --append                append data onto shorter files
            --append-verify         --append w/old data in file checksum
        -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
            --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
            --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
            --munge-links           munge symlinks to make them safer
        -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to dir into referent dir
        -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -E, --executability         preserve executability
            --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
        -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies -p)
        -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
            --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
            --specials              preserve special files
        -D                          same as --devices --specials
        -t, --times                 preserve modification times
        -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
        -J, --omit-link-times       omit symlinks from --times
            --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
            --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
            --preallocate           allocate dest files before writing
        -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
        -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
        -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on remote machine
            --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
            --ignore-existing       skip updating files that exist on receiver
            --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
            --del                   an alias for --delete-during
            --delete                delete extraneous files from dest dirs
            --delete-before         receiver deletes before xfer, not during
            --delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
            --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
            --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from dest dirs
            --ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
            --delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
            --force                 force deletion of dirs even if not empty
            --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
            --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
            --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
            --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at end
        -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from file-list
            --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --usermap=STRING        custom username mapping
            --groupmap=STRING       custom groupname mapping
            --chown=USER:GROUP      simple username/groupname mapping
            --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
            --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match size and time
            --size-only             skip files that match in size
            --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
        -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
        -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare received files relative to DIR
            --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
            --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
        -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
            --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
            --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
        -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
        -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                                    repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
            --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
        -0, --from0                 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
        -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
            --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
            --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
            --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
            --outbuf=N|L|B          set out buffering to None, Line, or Block
            --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
        -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
        -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
            --progress              show progress during transfer
        -P                          same as --partial --progress
        -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
        -M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION to the remote side only
            --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
            --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
            --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
            --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
            --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
            --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating dest
            --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
            --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
            --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
            --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
            --version               print version number
       (-h) --help                  show this help (see below for -h comment)

       Rsync  can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options
       are accepted:

            --daemon                run as an rsync daemon
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address
            --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
            --config=FILE           specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
        -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE       override global daemon config parameter
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --port=PORT             listen on alternate port number
            --log-file=FILE         override the "log file" setting
            --log-file-format=FMT   override the "log format" setting
            --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
        -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
        -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
        -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
        -h, --help                  show this help (if used after --daemon)

OPTIONS
       Rsync accepts both long (double-dash + word) and short  (single-dash  +
       letter)  options.  The full list of the available options are described
       below.  If an option can be specified in more than one way, the choices
       are  comma-separated.   Some  options  only  have a long variant, not a
       short.  If the option takes a parameter, the parameter is  only  listed
       after  the  long variant, even though it must also be specified for the
       short.  When specifying a  parameter,  you  can  either  use  the  form
       --option=param  or  replace the '=' with whitespace.  The parameter may
       need to be quoted in some manner for it to  survive  the  shell's  com-
       mand-line parsing.  Keep in mind that a leading tilde (~) in a filename
       is substituted by your shell, so --option=~/foo  will  not  change  the
       tilde into your home directory (remove the '=' for that).

       --help Print  a  short  help  page  describing the options available in
              rsync and exit.  For backward-compatibility with older  versions
              of  rsync, the help will also be output if you use the -h option
              without any other args.

       --version
              print the rsync version number and exit.

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information  you  are  given
              during the transfer.  By default, rsync works silently. A single
              -v will give you information about what files are  being  trans-
              ferred  and a brief summary at the end. Two -v options will give
              you information on what files are  being  skipped  and  slightly
              more  information  at  the  end. More than two -v options should
              only be used if you are debugging rsync.

              In a modern rsync, the -v option is equivalent to the setting of
              groups  of  --info  and  --debug options.  You can choose to use
              these newer options in addition to, or in place of using  --ver-
              bose, as any fine-grained settings override the implied settings
              of -v.  Both --info and --debug have a way to ask for help  that
              tells  you  exactly what flags are set for each increase in ver-
              bosity.

              However, do keep in mind that a daemon's "max verbosity" setting
              will  limit how high of a level the various individual flags can
              be set on the daemon side.  For instance, if the max is 2,  then
              any  info  and/or  debug flag that is set to a higher value than
              what would be set by -vv will be downgraded to the -vv level  in
              the daemon's logging.

       --info=FLAGS
              This option lets you have fine-grained control over the informa-
              tion output you want to see.  An individual  flag  name  may  be
              followed  by a level number, with 0 meaning to silence that out-
              put, 1 being  the  default  output  level,  and  higher  numbers
              increasing  the  output  of  that  flag  (for those that support
              higher levels).  Use --info=help to see all the  available  flag
              names,  what they output, and what flag names are added for each
              increase in the verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -a --info=progress2 src/ dest/
                  rsync -avv --info=stats2,misc1,flist0 src/ dest/

              Note that --info=name's output is affected by  the  --out-format
              and  --itemize-changes (-i) options.  See those options for more
              information on what is output and when.

              This option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the  server
              side  might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if one
              or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
              too  old  to  understand  them).   See  also the "max verbosity"
              caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

       --debug=FLAGS
              This option lets you have fine-grained control  over  the  debug
              output you want to see.  An individual flag name may be followed
              by a level number, with 0 meaning  to  silence  that  output,  1
              being  the  default  output level, and higher numbers increasing
              the output of that flag (for those that support higher  levels).
              Use  --debug=help to see all the available flag names, what they
              output, and what flag names are added for each increase  in  the
              verbose level.  Some examples:

                  rsync -avvv --debug=none src/ dest/
                  rsync -avA --del --debug=del2,acl src/ dest/

              Note   that  some  debug  messages  will  only  be  output  when
              --msgs2stderr is specified, especially those pertaining  to  I/O
              and buffer debugging.

              This  option was added to 3.1.0, so an older rsync on the server
              side might reject your attempts at fine-grained control (if  one
              or more flags needed to be send to the server and the server was
              too old to understand  them).   See  also  the  "max  verbosity"
              caveat above when dealing with a daemon.

       --msgs2stderr
              This  option  changes  rsync  to send all its output directly to
              stderr rather than to send messages to the client side  via  the
              protocol  (which  normally  outputs  info  messages via stdout).
              This is mainly intended for debugging in order to avoid changing
              the  data  sent  via the protocol, since the extra protocol data
              can change what is being tested.  Keep in  mind  that  a  daemon
              connection  does not have a stderr channel to send messages back
              to the client side, so if  you  are  doing  any  daemon-transfer
              debugging  using this option, you should start up a daemon using
              --no-detach so that you can see the stderr output on the  daemon
              side.

              This  option  has  the  side-effect  of making stderr output get
              line-buffered so that the merging of the output  of  3  programs
              happens in a more readable manner.

       -q, --quiet
              This  option  decreases  the amount of information you are given
              during the transfer, notably  suppressing  information  messages
              from  the  remote  server.  This  option is useful when invoking
              rsync from cron.

       --no-motd
              This option affects the information that is output by the client
              at  the  start  of  a daemon transfer.  This suppresses the mes-
              sage-of-the-day (MOTD) text, but it also  affects  the  list  of
              modules  that the daemon sends in response to the "rsync host::"
              request (due to a limitation in the  rsync  protocol),  so  omit
              this  option if you want to request the list of modules from the
              daemon.

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally rsync will skip any files that  are  already  the  same
              size  and  have  the  same  modification timestamp.  This option
              turns off this "quick check" behavior, causing all files  to  be
              updated.

       --size-only
              This  modifies rsync's "quick check" algorithm for finding files
              that need to be transferred, changing it  from  the  default  of
              transferring  files  with  either  a  changed  size or a changed
              last-modified time to just looking for files that  have  changed
              in  size.  This is useful when starting to use rsync after using
              another mirroring  system  which  may  not  preserve  timestamps
              exactly.

       --modify-window
              When  comparing  two  timestamps, rsync treats the timestamps as
              being equal if they differ by no  more  than  the  modify-window
              value.   This  is  normally  0 (for an exact match), but you may
              find it useful to set this to a larger value in some situations.
              In  particular,  when  transferring to or from an MS Windows FAT
              filesystem (which represents times with a 2-second  resolution),
              --modify-window=1 is useful (allowing times to differ by up to 1
              second).

       -c, --checksum
              This changes the way rsync checks if the files have been changed
              and  are in need of a transfer.  Without this option, rsync uses
              a "quick check" that (by default) checks if each file's size and
              time of last modification match between the sender and receiver.
              This option changes this to compare a 128-bit checksum for  each
              file  that  has a matching size.  Generating the checksums means
              that both sides will expend a lot of disk I/O  reading  all  the
              data  in  the  files  in  the transfer (and this is prior to any
              reading that will be done to transfer changed  files),  so  this
              can slow things down significantly.

              The  sending  side generates its checksums while it is doing the
              file-system scan that builds the list of  the  available  files.
              The  receiver  generates  its  checksums when it is scanning for
              changed files, and will checksum any file that has the same size
              as the corresponding sender's file:  files with either a changed
              size or a changed checksum are selected for transfer.

              Note that rsync always verifies that each transferred  file  was
              correctly  reconstructed  on  the  receiving  side by checking a
              whole-file checksum that is generated  as  the  file  is  trans-
              ferred,  but  that automatic after-the-transfer verification has
              nothing to do with this option's before-the-transfer "Does  this
              file need to be updated?" check.

              For  protocol  30  and  beyond  (first  supported in 3.0.0), the
              checksum used is MD5.  For older protocols, the checksum used is
              MD4.

       -a, --archive
              This  is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a quick way of saying you
              want recursion and want to preserve almost everything  (with  -H
              being  a  notable  omission).   The  only exception to the above
              equivalence is when --files-from is specified, in which case  -r
              is not implied.

              Note that -a does not preserve hardlinks, because finding multi-
              ply-linked files is expensive.  You must separately specify -H.

       --no-OPTION
              You may turn off one or more implied options  by  prefixing  the
              option  name with "no-".  Not all options may be prefixed with a
              "no-": only options that are  implied  by  other  options  (e.g.
              --no-D,  --no-perms)  or have different defaults in various cir-
              cumstances (e.g. --no-whole-file, --no-blocking-io,  --no-dirs).
              You  may  specify either the short or the long option name after
              the "no-" prefix (e.g. --no-R is the same as --no-relative).

              For example: if you want to use -a (--archive) but don't want -o
              (--owner),  instead  of  converting  -a  into -rlptgD, you could
              specify -a --no-o (or -a --no-owner).

              The order of the options is important:  if  you  specify  --no-r
              -a,  the -r option would end up being turned on, the opposite of
              -a --no-r.  Note also that the side-effects of the  --files-from
              option  are  NOT  positional, as it affects the default state of
              several options and slightly changes the meaning of -a (see  the
              --files-from option for more details).

       -r, --recursive
              This  tells  rsync  to  copy  directories recursively.  See also
              --dirs (-d).

              Beginning with rsync 3.0.0, the recursive algorithm used is  now
              an  incremental  scan that uses much less memory than before and
              begins the transfer after the scanning of the first few directo-
              ries  have  been  completed.  This incremental scan only affects
              our recursion algorithm, and does  not  change  a  non-recursive
              transfer.  It is also only possible when both ends of the trans-
              fer are at least version 3.0.0.

              Some options require rsync to know the full file list, so  these
              options  disable the incremental recursion mode.  These include:
              --delete-before,   --delete-after,    --prune-empty-dirs,    and
              --delay-updates.   Because of this, the default delete mode when
              you specify --delete is now --delete-during when  both  ends  of
              the  connection are at least 3.0.0 (use --del or --delete-during
              to request this improved deletion mode  explicitly).   See  also
              the  --delete-delay  option  that  is a better choice than using
              --delete-after.

              Incremental recursion can be disabled using the  --no-inc-recur-
              sive option or its shorter --no-i-r alias.

       -R, --relative
              Use  relative  paths. This means that the full path names speci-
              fied on the command line are sent to the server rather than just
              the  last  parts  of  the filenames. This is particularly useful
              when you want to send several different directories at the  same
              time. For example, if you used this command:

                 rsync -av /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              ...  this would create a file named baz.c in /tmp/ on the remote
              machine. If instead you used

                 rsync -avR /foo/bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file named /tmp/foo/bar/baz.c would  be  created  on  the
              remote machine, preserving its full path.  These extra path ele-
              ments are called "implied directories" (i.e. the "foo"  and  the
              "foo/bar" directories in the above example).

              Beginning  with  rsync  3.0.0,  rsync always sends these implied
              directories as real directories in the file list, even if a path
              element  is really a symlink on the sending side.  This prevents
              some really unexpected behaviors when copying the full path of a
              file  that you didn't realize had a symlink in its path.  If you
              want to duplicate a server-side symlink, include both  the  sym-
              link via its path, and referent directory via its real path.  If
              you're dealing with an older rsync on the sending side, you  may
              need to use the --no-implied-dirs option.

              It is also possible to limit the amount of path information that
              is sent as implied directories for each path you specify.   With
              a  modern  rsync on the sending side (beginning with 2.6.7), you
              can insert a dot and a slash into the source path, like this:

                 rsync -avR /foo/./bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/

              That would create /tmp/bar/baz.c on the remote  machine.   (Note
              that  the dot must be followed by a slash, so "/foo/." would not
              be abbreviated.)  For older rsync versions, you  would  need  to
              use a chdir to limit the source path.  For example, when pushing
              files:

                 (cd /foo; rsync -avR bar/baz.c remote:/tmp/)

              (Note that the parens put the two commands into a sub-shell,  so
              that  the  "cd" command doesn't remain in effect for future com-
              mands.)  If you're pulling files from an older rsync,  use  this
              idiom (but only for a non-daemon transfer):

                 rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /foo; rsync" \
                     remote:bar/baz.c /tmp/

       --no-implied-dirs
              This  option  affects  the  default  behavior  of the --relative
              option.  When it is specified, the  attributes  of  the  implied
              directories from the source names are not included in the trans-
              fer.  This means that the corresponding  path  elements  on  the
              destination  system  are  left  unchanged if they exist, and any
              missing implied directories are created with default attributes.
              This even allows these implied path elements to have big differ-
              ences, such as being a symlink to a directory on  the  receiving
              side.

              For  instance,  if a command-line arg or a files-from entry told
              rsync to transfer  the  file  "path/foo/file",  the  directories
              "path"  and  "path/foo" are implied when --relative is used.  If
              "path/foo" is a symlink to "bar" on the destination system,  the
              receiving  rsync would ordinarily delete "path/foo", recreate it
              as a directory, and receive the file  into  the  new  directory.
              With    --no-implied-dirs,    the    receiving   rsync   updates
              "path/foo/file" using the existing path  elements,  which  means
              that  the file ends up being created in "path/bar".  Another way
              to  accomplish  this   link   preservation   is   to   use   the
              --keep-dirlinks  option  (which  will  also  affect  symlinks to
              directories in the rest of the transfer).

              When pulling files from an rsync older than 3.0.0, you may  need
              to use this option if the sending side has a symlink in the path
              you request and you wish the implied directories  to  be  trans-
              ferred as normal directories.

       -b, --backup
              With  this  option, preexisting destination files are renamed as
              each file is transferred or deleted.  You can control where  the
              backup  file  goes  and what (if any) suffix gets appended using
              the --backup-dir and --suffix options.

              Note  that  if  you  don't   specify   --backup-dir,   (1)   the
              --omit-dir-times  option will be implied, and (2) if --delete is
              also in effect (without --delete-excluded),  rsync  will  add  a
              "protect"  filter-rule  for  the backup suffix to the end of all
              your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~").  This will prevent pre-
              viously  backed-up  files  from being deleted.  Note that if you
              are supplying your own filter rules, you may  need  to  manually
              insert  your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the
              list so that it has a  high  enough  priority  to  be  effective
              (e.g.,  if  your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion of
              '*', the auto-added rule would never be reached).

       --backup-dir=DIR
              In combination with the --backup option,  this  tells  rsync  to
              store  all  backups  in the specified directory on the receiving
              side.  This can be used for incremental backups.  You can  addi-
              tionally specify a backup suffix using the --suffix option (oth-
              erwise the files backed up in the specified directory will  keep
              their original filenames).

              Note  that  if you specify a relative path, the backup directory
              will be relative to the destination directory, so  you  probably
              want  to  specify  either an absolute path or a path that starts
              with "../".  If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup  dir
              cannot  go  outside  the  module's path hierarchy, so take extra
              care not to delete it or copy into it.

       --suffix=SUFFIX
              This option allows you to override  the  default  backup  suffix
              used with the --backup (-b) option. The default suffix is a ~ if
              no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.

       -u, --update
              This forces rsync to skip any files which exist on the  destina-
              tion  and  have  a  modified  time that is newer than the source
              file.  (If an existing destination file has a modification  time
              equal  to the source file's, it will be updated if the sizes are
              different.)

              Note that this does not affect the copying of dirs, symlinks, or
              other  special files.  Also, a difference of file format between
              the sender and receiver is always  considered  to  be  important
              enough for an update, no matter what date is on the objects.  In
              other words, if the source has a directory where the destination
              has  a  file,  the  transfer would occur regardless of the time-
              stamps.

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

       --inplace
              This  option  changes  how  rsync transfers a file when its data
              needs to be updated: instead of the default method of creating a
              new  copy  of  the file and moving it into place when it is com-
              plete, rsync instead writes the updated  data  directly  to  the
              destination file.

              This has several effects:

              o      Hard  links are not broken.  This means the new data will
                     be visible through other hard links  to  the  destination
                     file.   Moreover, attempts to copy differing source files
                     onto a multiply-linked destination file will result in  a
                     "tug  of war" with the destination data changing back and
                     forth.

              o      In-use binaries cannot be updated  (either  the  OS  will
                     prevent  this from happening, or binaries that attempt to
                     swap-in their data will misbehave or crash).

              o      The file's data will be in an inconsistent  state  during
                     the transfer and will be left that way if the transfer is
                     interrupted or if an update fails.

              o      A file that rsync cannot  write  to  cannot  be  updated.
                     While  a  super  user  can update any file, a normal user
                     needs to be granted write permission for the open of  the
                     file for writing to be successful.

              o      The efficiency of rsync's delta-transfer algorithm may be
                     reduced if some data in the destination file is overwrit-
                     ten  before  it  can be copied to a position later in the
                     file.  This does not apply if  you  use  --backup,  since
                     rsync is smart enough to use the backup file as the basis
                     file for the transfer.

              WARNING: you should not use this option to update files that are
              being  accessed  by  others,  so be careful when choosing to use
              this for a copy.

              This  option  is  useful  for  transferring  large  files   with
              block-based  changes  or appended data, and also on systems that
              are disk bound, not network bound.  It  can  also  help  keep  a
              copy-on-write filesystem snapshot from diverging the entire con-
              tents of a file that only has minor changes.

              The option implies --partial (since an interrupted transfer does
              not  delete  the  file),  but  conflicts  with --partial-dir and
              --delay-updates.  Prior to rsync 2.6.4 --inplace was also incom-
              patible with --compare-dest and --link-dest.

       --append
              This  causes  rsync  to update a file by appending data onto the
              end of the file, which  presumes  that  the  data  that  already
              exists  on the receiving side is identical with the start of the
              file on the sending side.  If a file needs to be transferred and
              its  size on the receiver is the same or longer than the size on
              the sender, the file is skipped.  This does not  interfere  with
              the  updating  of  a file's non-content attributes (e.g. permis-
              sions, ownership, etc.) when the file does not need to be trans-
              ferred,  nor  does  it  affect  the  updating of any non-regular
              files.  Implies --inplace, but does not conflict  with  --sparse
              (since it is always extending a file's length).

       --append-verify
              This  works just like the --append option, but the existing data
              on the receiving side is included in the full-file checksum ver-
              ification  step,  which  will  cause  a file to be resent if the
              final verification step fails (rsync uses a normal,  non-append-
              ing --inplace transfer for the resend).

              Note:  prior  to  rsync  3.0.0,  the --append option worked like
              --append-verify, so if you are interacting with an  older  rsync
              (or  the  transfer  is using a protocol prior to 30), specifying
              either append option will initiate an --append-verify transfer.

       -d, --dirs
              Tell the sending  side  to  include  any  directories  that  are
              encountered.  Unlike --recursive, a directory's contents are not
              copied unless the directory name specified is "." or ends with a
              trailing  slash (e.g. ".", "dir/.", "dir/", etc.).  Without this
              option or the --recursive option, rsync will skip  all  directo-
              ries it encounters (and output a message to that effect for each
              one).  If you specify both --dirs and  --recursive,  --recursive
              takes precedence.

              The  --dirs  option is implied by the --files-from option or the
              --list-only option (including an implied --list-only  usage)  if
              --recursive  wasn't  specified  (so that directories are seen in
              the listing).  Specify --no-dirs (or --no-d) if you want to turn
              this off.

              There is also a backward-compatibility helper option, --old-dirs
              (or  --old-d)  that  tells  rsync  to  use   a   hack   of   "-r
              --exclude='/*/*'"  to get an older rsync to list a single direc-
              tory without recursing.

       -l, --links
              When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink on the  des-
              tination.

       -L, --copy-links
              When  symlinks are encountered, the item that they point to (the
              referent) is copied, rather than the symlink.  In older versions
              of  rsync,  this  option also had the side-effect of telling the
              receiving side to follow symlinks, such as symlinks to  directo-
              ries.   In a modern rsync such as this one, you'll need to spec-
              ify --keep-dirlinks (-K) to get this extra behavior.   The  only
              exception  is  when sending files to an rsync that is too old to
              understand -K -- in that case, the -L option will still have the
              side-effect of -K on that older receiving rsync.

       --copy-unsafe-links
              This  tells  rsync  to  copy the referent of symbolic links that
              point outside the  copied  tree.   Absolute  symlinks  are  also
              treated  like  ordinary  files,  and  so are any symlinks in the
              source path itself when --relative is used.  This option has  no
              additional effect if --copy-links was also specified.

       --safe-links
              This  tells  rsync to ignore any symbolic links which point out-
              side the copied tree. All absolute symlinks  are  also  ignored.
              Using  this option in conjunction with --relative may give unex-
              pected results.

       --munge-links
              This option tells rsync  to  (1)  modify  all  symlinks  on  the
              receiving side in a way that makes them unusable but recoverable
              (see below), or (2) to unmunge symlinks on the sending side that
              had  been stored in a munged state.  This is useful if you don't
              quite trust the source of the data to not try to slip in a  sym-
              link to a unexpected place.

              The way rsync disables the use of symlinks is to prefix each one
              with the string "/rsyncd-munged/".  This prevents the links from
              being  used as long as that directory does not exist.  When this
              option is enabled, rsync will refuse to run if that  path  is  a
              directory or a symlink to a directory.

              The  option  only affects the client side of the transfer, so if
              you  need  it   to   affect   the   server,   specify   it   via
              --remote-option.   (Note  that  in  a local transfer, the client
              side is the sender.)

              This option has no affect on a daemon, since the daemon  config-
              ures  whether  it wants munged symlinks via its "munge symlinks"
              parameter.  See also the "munge-symlinks"  perl  script  in  the
              support directory of the source code.

       -k, --copy-dirlinks
              This  option  causes  the  sending  side to treat a symlink to a
              directory as though it were a real directory.  This is useful if
              you  don't  want  symlinks to non-directories to be affected, as
              they would be using --copy-links.

              Without this option, if the sending side has replaced  a  direc-
              tory  with  a  symlink  to  a directory, the receiving side will
              delete anything that is in the way of the new symlink, including
              a  directory  hierarchy  (as  long  as --force or --delete is in
              effect).

              See also --keep-dirlinks for an analogous option for the receiv-
              ing side.

              --copy-dirlinks  applies  to  all symlinks to directories in the
              source.  If you want to follow only a few specified symlinks,  a
              trick you can use is to pass them as additional source args with
              a trailing slash, using --relative to make the  paths  match  up
              right.  For example:

              rsync -r --relative src/./ src/./follow-me/ dest/

              This  works  because  rsync  calls lstat(2) on the source arg as
              given, and the trailing slash makes lstat(2) follow the symlink,
              giving  rise to a directory in the file-list which overrides the
              symlink found during the scan of "src/./".

       -K, --keep-dirlinks
              This option causes the receiving side to treat a  symlink  to  a
              directory  as  though  it  were a real directory, but only if it
              matches a real directory from the sender.  Without this  option,
              the receiver's symlink would be deleted and replaced with a real
              directory.

              For example, suppose you transfer a directory  "foo"  that  con-
              tains  a  file "file", but "foo" is a symlink to directory "bar"
              on the receiver.  Without --keep-dirlinks, the receiver  deletes
              symlink  "foo",  recreates  it  as a directory, and receives the
              file into the new directory.  With --keep-dirlinks, the receiver
              keeps the symlink and "file" ends up in "bar".

              One note of caution:  if you use --keep-dirlinks, you must trust
              all the symlinks  in  the  copy!   If  it  is  possible  for  an
              untrusted user to create their own symlink to any directory, the
              user could then (on a subsequent copy) replace the symlink  with
              a  real  directory  and affect the content of whatever directory
              the symlink references.  For backup copies, you are  better  off
              using something like a bind mount instead of a symlink to modify
              your receiving hierarchy.

              See also --copy-dirlinks for an analogous option for the sending
              side.

       -H, --hard-links
              This tells rsync to look for hard-linked files in the source and
              link together the corresponding files on the destination.  With-
              out  this option, hard-linked files in the source are treated as
              though they were separate files.

              This option does NOT necessarily ensure that the pattern of hard
              links  on  the  destination  exactly matches that on the source.
              Cases in which the destination may end up with extra hard  links
              include the following:

              o      If  the  destination contains extraneous hard-links (more
                     linking than what is present in the  source  file  list),
                     the  copying  algorithm  will  not break them explicitly.
                     However, if one or more of the paths have content differ-
                     ences,  the  normal  file-update process will break those
                     extra links (unless you are using the --inplace option).

              o      If you specify a --link-dest directory that contains hard
                     links,  the  linking of the destination files against the
                     --link-dest files can cause some paths in the destination
                     to become linked together due to the --link-dest associa-
                     tions.

              Note that rsync can only detect hard links  between  files  that
              are  inside  the transfer set.  If rsync updates a file that has
              extra hard-link connections to files outside the transfer,  that
              linkage will be broken.  If you are tempted to use the --inplace
              option to avoid this breakage, be very careful that you know how
              your  files  are  being  updated so that you are certain that no
              unintended changes happen due to lingering hard links  (and  see
              the --inplace option for more caveats).

              If  incremental recursion is active (see --recursive), rsync may
              transfer a missing hard-linked file before it finds that another
              link  for that contents exists elsewhere in the hierarchy.  This
              does not affect the accuracy of the transfer (i.e.  which  files
              are hard-linked together), just its efficiency (i.e. copying the
              data for a new, early copy of a hard-linked file that could have
              been  found  later  in  the  transfer  in  another member of the
              hard-linked set of files).  One way to avoid  this  inefficiency
              is to disable incremental recursion using the --no-inc-recursive
              option.

       -p, --perms
              This option causes the receiving rsync to  set  the  destination
              permissions to be the same as the source permissions.  (See also
              the --chmod option for a way to modify what rsync  considers  to
              be the source permissions.)

              When this option is off, permissions are set as follows:

              o      Existing  files  (including  updated  files) retain their
                     existing permissions, though the  --executability  option
                     might change just the execute permission for the file.

              o      New  files  get their "normal" permission bits set to the
                     source  file's  permissions  masked  with  the  receiving
                     directory's  default  permissions  (either  the receiving
                     process's umask, or the  permissions  specified  via  the
                     destination  directory's  default ACL), and their special
                     permission bits disabled except in the case where  a  new
                     directory  inherits  a  setgid bit from its parent direc-
                     tory.

              Thus,  when  --perms  and  --executability  are  both  disabled,
              rsync's  behavior  is the same as that of other file-copy utili-
              ties, such as cp(1) and tar(1).

              In summary: to give destination files (both  old  and  new)  the
              source permissions, use --perms.  To give new files the destina-
              tion-default   permissions   (while   leaving   existing   files
              unchanged),  make  sure  that  the --perms option is off and use
              --chmod=ugo=rwX (which ensures  that  all  non-masked  bits  get
              enabled).   If you'd care to make this latter behavior easier to
              type, you could define a popt alias for it, such as putting this
              line  in  the file ~/.popt (the following defines the -Z option,
              and includes --no-g to use the default group of the  destination
              dir):

                 rsync alias -Z --no-p --no-g --chmod=ugo=rwX

              You  could  then  use  this new option in a command such as this
              one:

                 rsync -avZ src/ dest/

              (Caveat: make sure that -a  does  not  follow  -Z,  or  it  will
              re-enable the two "--no-*" options mentioned above.)

              The  preservation  of the destination's setgid bit on newly-cre-
              ated directories when --perms is off was added in  rsync  2.6.7.
              Older  rsync  versions  erroneously  preserved the three special
              permission bits for newly-created files when  --perms  was  off,
              while  overriding  the  destination's  setgid  bit  setting on a
              newly-created directory.  Default ACL observance  was  added  to
              the  ACL  patch  for  rsync 2.6.7, so older (or non-ACL-enabled)
              rsyncs use the umask even if default ACLs are present.  (Keep in
              mind  that it is the version of the receiving rsync that affects
              these behaviors.)

       -E, --executability
              This option causes  rsync  to  preserve  the  executability  (or
              non-executability) of regular files when --perms is not enabled.
              A regular file is considered to be executable if  at  least  one
              'x'  is turned on in its permissions.  When an existing destina-
              tion file's executability differs from that of the corresponding
              source  file,  rsync modifies the destination file's permissions
              as follows:

              o      To make a file non-executable, rsync turns  off  all  its
                     'x' permissions.

              o      To  make  a file executable, rsync turns on each 'x' per-
                     mission that has a corresponding 'r' permission enabled.

              If --perms is enabled, this option is ignored.

       -A, --acls
              This option causes rsync to update the destination  ACLs  to  be
              the same as the source ACLs.  The option also implies --perms.

              The  source  and  destination  systems  must have compatible ACL
              entries for this option to work properly.  See the  --fake-super
              option for a way to backup and restore ACLs that are not compat-
              ible.

       -X, --xattrs
              This option causes rsync  to  update  the  destination  extended
              attributes to be the same as the source ones.

              For  systems  that support extended-attribute namespaces, a copy
              being done by a super-user copies  all  namespaces  except  sys-
              tem.*.   A  normal user only copies the user.* namespace.  To be
              able to backup and restore non-user namespaces as a normal user,
              see the --fake-super option.

              Note  that this option does not copy rsyncs special xattr values
              (e.g. those used by --fake-super) unless you repeat  the  option
              (e.g.  -XX).   This  "copy  all xattrs" mode cannot be used with
              --fake-super.

       --chmod
              This option tells rsync to apply  one  or  more  comma-separated
              "chmod"  modes  to  the permission of the files in the transfer.
              The resulting value is treated as though it were the permissions
              that  the  sending  side supplied for the file, which means that
              this option can seem to have no  effect  on  existing  files  if
              --perms is not enabled.

              In  addition  to  the  normal  parsing  rules  specified  in the
              chmod(1) manpage, you can specify an item that should only apply
              to  a  directory  by prefixing it with a 'D', or specify an item
              that should only apply to a file by prefixing  it  with  a  'F'.
              For  example, the following will ensure that all directories get
              marked set-gid, that no files are other-writable, that both  are
              user-writable  and group-writable, and that both have consistent
              executability across all bits:

              --chmod=Dg+s,ug+w,Fo-w,+X

              Using octal mode numbers is also allowed:

              --chmod=D2775,F664

              It is also legal to specify multiple --chmod  options,  as  each
              additional  option  is  just  appended to the list of changes to
              make.

              See the --perms and --executability options for how the  result-
              ing  permission  value can be applied to the files in the trans-
              fer.

       -o, --owner
              This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the  destination
              file  to be the same as the source file, but only if the receiv-
              ing rsync is being run as the super-user (see also  the  --super
              and  --fake-super  options).   Without this option, the owner of
              new and/or transferred files are set to the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The  preservation  of ownership will associate matching names by
              default, but may fall back to using the ID number in  some  cir-
              cumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full discus-
              sion).

       -g, --group
              This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the  destination
              file  to  be the same as the source file.  If the receiving pro-
              gram is not running as the  super-user  (or  if  --no-super  was
              specified),  only groups that the invoking user on the receiving
              side is a member of will be preserved.  Without this option, the
              group  is  set  to the default group of the invoking user on the
              receiving side.

              The preservation of group information  will  associate  matching
              names  by  default,  but may fall back to using the ID number in
              some circumstances (see also the --numeric-ids option for a full
              discussion).

       --devices
              This  option causes rsync to transfer character and block device
              files to the remote system  to  recreate  these  devices.   This
              option  has  no  effect if the receiving rsync is not run as the
              super-user (see also the --super and --fake-super options).

       --specials
              This option causes rsync to transfer special files such as named
              sockets and fifos.

       -D     The -D option is equivalent to --devices --specials.

       -t, --times
              This  tells  rsync to transfer modification times along with the
              files and update them on the remote system.  Note that  if  this
              option  is  not  used, the optimization that excludes files that
              have not been modified cannot be effective; in  other  words,  a
              missing -t or -a will cause the next transfer to behave as if it
              used -I,  causing  all  files  to  be  updated  (though  rsync's
              delta-transfer  algorithm  will make the update fairly efficient
              if the files haven't actually changed, you're  much  better  off
              using -t).

       -O, --omit-dir-times
              This tells rsync to omit directories when it is preserving modi-
              fication times (see --times).  If NFS is sharing the directories
              on the receiving side, it is a good idea to use -O.  This option
              is inferred if you use --backup without --backup-dir.

              This option also has the side-effect of avoiding early  creation
              of  directories  in  incremental  recursion copies.  The default
              --inc-recursive copying normally does an  early-create  pass  of
              all the sub-directories in a parent directory in order for it to
              be able to then set the modify  time  of  the  parent  directory
              right away (without having to delay that until a bunch of recur-
              sive copying has finished).  This early-create idiom is not nec-
              essary  if directory modify times are not being preserved, so it
              is skipped.  Since early-create directories don't have  accurate
              mode,  mtime, or ownership, the use of this option can help when
              someone wants to avoid these partially-finished directories.

       -J, --omit-link-times
              This tells rsync to omit symlinks when it is preserving  modifi-
              cation times (see --times).

       --super
              This  tells  the receiving side to attempt super-user activities
              even if the receiving rsync wasn't run by the super-user.  These
              activities  include:  preserving  users  via the --owner option,
              preserving all groups (not just the current user's  groups)  via
              the  --groups  option,  and  copying  devices  via the --devices
              option.  This is useful for systems that allow  such  activities
              without  being  the  super-user,  and also for ensuring that you
              will get errors if the receiving side isn't  being  run  as  the
              super-user.   To  turn off super-user activities, the super-user
              can use --no-super.

       --fake-super
              When this option is enabled, rsync simulates super-user  activi-
              ties  by  saving/restoring the privileged attributes via special
              extended attributes that are attached to each file (as  needed).
              This  includes  the  file's  owner  and  group (if it is not the
              default), the file's device info (device  &  special  files  are
              created  as  empty  text files), and any permission bits that we
              won't allow to be set on the real file (e.g.  the real file gets
              u-s,g-s,o-t  for  safety) or that would limit the owner's access
              (since the real super-user can always access/change a file,  the
              files  we  create can always be accessed/changed by the creating
              user).  This option also handles ACLs (if --acls was  specified)
              and non-user extended attributes (if --xattrs was specified).

              This  is  a  good way to backup data without using a super-user,
              and to store ACLs from incompatible systems.

              The --fake-super option only affects the side where  the  option
              is  used.   To  affect the remote side of a remote-shell connec-
              tion, use the --remote-option (-M) option:

                rsync -av -M--fake-super /src/ host:/dest/

              For a local copy, this option affects both the  source  and  the
              destination.   If  you  wish  a local copy to enable this option
              just for the destination files, specify -M--fake-super.  If  you
              wish  a  local  copy  to  enable this option just for the source
              files, combine --fake-super with -M--super.

              This option is overridden by both --super and --no-super.

              See also the "fake super" setting in  the  daemon's  rsyncd.conf
              file.

       -S, --sparse
              Try  to  handle  sparse  files  efficiently so they take up less
              space on the destination.  Conflicts with --inplace because it's
              not possible to overwrite data in a sparse fashion.

       --preallocate
              This tells the receiver to allocate each destination file to its
              eventual size before writing data to the file.  Rsync will  only
              use  the real filesystem-level preallocation support provided by
              Linux's fallocate(2) system call or Cygwin's posix_fallocate(3),
              not  the  slow glibc implementation that writes a zero byte into
              each block.

              Without this option, larger files may not be entirely contiguous
              on the filesystem, but with this option rsync will probably copy
              more slowly.  If the destination  is  not  an  extent-supporting
              filesystem (such as ext4, xfs, NTFS, etc.), this option may have
              no positive effect at all.

       -n, --dry-run
              This makes rsync perform a  trial  run  that  doesn't  make  any
              changes (and produces mostly the same output as a real run).  It
              is most commonly used in  combination  with  the  -v,  --verbose
              and/or  -i,  --itemize-changes options to see what an rsync com-
              mand is going to do before one actually runs it.

              The output of --itemize-changes is supposed to  be  exactly  the
              same on a dry run and a subsequent real run (barring intentional
              trickery and system call failures); if it isn't, that's  a  bug.
              Other  output should be mostly unchanged, but may differ in some
              areas.  Notably, a dry run does not send  the  actual  data  for
              file  transfers,  so --progress has no effect, the "bytes sent",
              "bytes received", "literal data", and "matched data"  statistics
              are  too  small,  and the "speedup" value is equivalent to a run
              where no file transfers were needed.

       -W, --whole-file
              With this option rsync's delta-transfer algorithm  is  not  used
              and  the  whole file is sent as-is instead.  The transfer may be
              faster if this option is used when  the  bandwidth  between  the
              source  and destination machines is higher than the bandwidth to
              disk  (especially  when  the  "disk"  is  actually  a  networked
              filesystem).   This is the default when both the source and des-
              tination  are  specified  as  local  paths,  but  only   if   no
              batch-writing option is in effect.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This  tells  rsync  to avoid crossing a filesystem boundary when
              recursing.  This does not limit the user's  ability  to  specify
              items  to copy from multiple filesystems, just rsync's recursion
              through the hierarchy of each directory that the user specified,
              and  also  the  analogous recursion on the receiving side during
              deletion.  Also keep in mind that rsync treats a "bind" mount to
              the same device as being on the same filesystem.

              If this option is repeated, rsync omits all mount-point directo-
              ries from the copy.  Otherwise, it includes an  empty  directory
              at  each  mount-point it encounters (using the attributes of the
              mounted directory because those of  the  underlying  mount-point
              directory are inaccessible).

              If rsync has been told to collapse symlinks (via --copy-links or
              --copy-unsafe-links), a symlink to a directory on another device
              is  treated like a mount-point.  Symlinks to non-directories are
              unaffected by this option.

       --existing, --ignore-non-existing
              This tells rsync to skip creating files (including  directories)
              that  do  not  exist  yet on the destination.  If this option is
              combined with the --ignore-existing option,  no  files  will  be
              updated  (which  can  be  useful if all you want to do is delete
              extraneous files).

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

       --ignore-existing
              This  tells  rsync  to skip updating files that already exist on
              the destination (this does not ignore existing  directories,  or
              nothing would get done).  See also --existing.

              This  option  is  a transfer rule, not an exclude, so it doesn't
              affect the data that goes  into  the  file-lists,  and  thus  it
              doesn't  affect  deletions.   It  just limits the files that the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              This option can be useful for  those  doing  backups  using  the
              --link-dest  option when they need to continue a backup run that
              got interrupted.  Since a --link-dest run is copied into  a  new
              directory  hierarchy  (when it is used properly), using --ignore
              existing will ensure that the already-handled  files  don't  get
              tweaked (which avoids a change in permissions on the hard-linked
              files).  This does mean that this option is only looking at  the
              existing files in the destination hierarchy itself.

       --remove-source-files
              This  tells  rsync  to  remove  from  the sending side the files
              (meaning non-directories) that are a part of  the  transfer  and
              have been successfully duplicated on the receiving side.

              Note  that  you should only use this option on source files that
              are quiescent.  If you are using this to move files that show up
              in  a  particular directory over to another host, make sure that
              the finished files get renamed into the  source  directory,  not
              directly  written into it, so that rsync can't possibly transfer
              a file that is not yet fully written.  If you can't first  write
              the  files  into  a different directory, you should use a naming
              idiom that lets rsync avoid transferring files that are not  yet
              finished  (e.g.  name  the  file  "foo.new"  when it is written,
              rename it to "foo" when it is done,  and  then  use  the  option
              --exclude='*.new' for the rsync transfer).

              Starting  with  3.1.0,  rsync  will skip the sender-side removal
              (and output an error) if the file's size or modify time has  not
              stayed unchanged.

       --delete
              This  tells  rsync to delete extraneous files from the receiving
              side (ones that aren't on the sending side), but  only  for  the
              directories  that  are  being synchronized.  You must have asked
              rsync to send the whole directory (e.g. "dir" or "dir/") without
              using  a  wildcard  for  the directory's contents (e.g. "dir/*")
              since the wildcard is expanded by the shell and rsync thus  gets
              a  request  to  transfer individual files, not the files' parent
              directory.  Files that are excluded from the transfer  are  also
              excluded from being deleted unless you use the --delete-excluded
              option or mark the rules as only matching on  the  sending  side
              (see the include/exclude modifiers in the FILTER RULES section).

              Prior  to  rsync  2.6.7, this option would have no effect unless
              --recursive was enabled.  Beginning with 2.6.7,  deletions  will
              also occur when --dirs (-d) is enabled, but only for directories
              whose contents are being copied.

              This option can be dangerous if used incorrectly!  It is a  very
              good  idea to first try a run using the --dry-run option (-n) to
              see what files are going to be deleted.

              If the sending side detects any I/O errors, then the deletion of
              any  files  at  the  destination will be automatically disabled.
              This is to prevent temporary filesystem failures  (such  as  NFS
              errors)  on  the sending side from causing a massive deletion of
              files on the  destination.   You  can  override  this  with  the
              --ignore-errors option.

              The   --delete   option   may   be  combined  with  one  of  the
              --delete-WHEN   options   without   conflict,   as    well    as
              --delete-excluded.    However,  if  none  of  the  --delete-WHEN
              options are specified, rsync  will  choose  the  --delete-during
              algorithm  when  talking  to  rsync  3.0.0  or  newer,  and  the
              --delete-before algorithm when talking to an older  rsync.   See
              also --delete-delay and --delete-after.

       --delete-before
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be done
              before the transfer starts.  See --delete (which is implied) for
              more details on file-deletion.

              Deleting  before  the  transfer  is helpful if the filesystem is
              tight for space and removing extraneous files would help to make
              the  transfer  possible.   However,  it  does  introduce a delay
              before the start of the transfer, and this delay might cause the
              transfer  to  timeout  (if  --timeout  was  specified).  It also
              forces rsync to use the old, non-incremental recursion algorithm
              that  requires  rsync to scan all the files in the transfer into
              memory at once (see --recursive).

       --delete-during, --del
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
              incrementally as the transfer happens.  The per-directory delete
              scan is done right before each directory is checked for updates,
              so  it  behaves like a more efficient --delete-before, including
              doing the deletions prior  to  any  per-directory  filter  files
              being  updated.   This  option  was first added in rsync version
              2.6.4.  See --delete (which is  implied)  for  more  details  on
              file-deletion.

       --delete-delay
              Request  that  the  file-deletions on the receiving side be com-
              puted during  the  transfer  (like  --delete-during),  and  then
              removed  after the transfer completes.  This is useful when com-
              bined with --delay-updates and/or --fuzzy, and is more efficient
              than  using  --delete-after  (but  can behave differently, since
              --delete-after computes the deletions in a separate  pass  after
              all updates are done).  If the number of removed files overflows
              an internal buffer, a temporary file  will  be  created  on  the
              receiving  side  to hold the names (it is removed while open, so
              you shouldn't see it during the transfer).  If the  creation  of
              the  temporary  file fails, rsync will try to fall back to using
              --delete-after (which it cannot do if --recursive  is  doing  an
              incremental  scan).   See  --delete  (which is implied) for more
              details on file-deletion.

       --delete-after
              Request that the file-deletions on the receiving  side  be  done
              after  the  transfer  has  completed.  This is useful if you are
              sending new per-directory merge files as a part of the  transfer
              and  you  want  their  exclusions  to take effect for the delete
              phase of the current transfer.  It also forces rsync to use  the
              old,  non-incremental recursion algorithm that requires rsync to
              scan all the files in the transfer  into  memory  at  once  (see
              --recursive).   See --delete (which is implied) for more details
              on file-deletion.

       --delete-excluded
              In addition to deleting the files on the receiving side that are
              not  on  the  sending  side, this tells rsync to also delete any
              files on the receiving side that are excluded  (see  --exclude).
              See the FILTER RULES section for a way to make individual exclu-
              sions behave this way on the receiver, and for a way to  protect
              files  from  --delete-excluded.  See --delete (which is implied)
              for more details on file-deletion.

       --ignore-missing-args
              When rsync is first processing the explicitly  requested  source
              files  (e.g. command-line arguments or --files-from entries), it
              is normally an error if the file cannot be found.   This  option
              suppresses  that  error,  and does not try to transfer the file.
              This does not affect subsequent vanished-file errors if  a  file
              was initially found to be present and later is no longer there.

       --delete-missing-args
              This  option  takes the behavior of (the implied) --ignore-miss-
              ing-args option a step farther:  each missing arg will become  a
              deletion  request  of  the corresponding destination file on the
              receiving side (should it exist).  If the destination file is  a
              non-empty  directory,  it  will  only be successfully deleted if
              --force or --delete are in effect.  Other than that, this option
              is independent of any other type of delete processing.

              The  missing  source  files are represented by special file-list
              entries which display as a "*missing" entry in  the  --list-only
              output.

       --ignore-errors
              Tells  --delete to go ahead and delete files even when there are
              I/O errors.

       --force
              This option tells rsync to delete a non-empty directory when  it
              is  to be replaced by a non-directory.  This is only relevant if
              deletions are not active (see --delete for details).

              Note for older rsync versions: --force used to still be required
              when  using  --delete-after,  and  it  used to be non-functional
              unless the --recursive option was also enabled.

       --max-delete=NUM
              This tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files  or  directo-
              ries.   If  that  limit  is  exceeded, all further deletions are
              skipped through the end of the transfer.  At the end, rsync out-
              puts  a warning (including a count of the skipped deletions) and
              exits with an error code of 25 (unless some more important error
              condition also occurred).

              Beginning  with version 3.0.0, you may specify --max-delete=0 to
              be warned about any extraneous files in the destination  without
              removing any of them.  Older clients interpreted this as "unlim-
              ited", so if you don't know what version the client is, you  can
              use  the  less  obvious --max-delete=-1 as a backward-compatible
              way to specify that no deletions be allowed (though  really  old
              versions didn't warn when the limit was exceeded).

       --max-size=SIZE
              This  tells  rsync to avoid transferring any file that is larger
              than the specified SIZE. The SIZE value can be suffixed  with  a
              string  to  indicate  a size multiplier, and may be a fractional
              value (e.g. "--max-size=1.5m").

              This option is a transfer rule, not an exclude,  so  it  doesn't
              affect  the  data  that  goes  into  the file-lists, and thus it
              doesn't affect deletions.  It just limits  the  files  that  the
              receiver requests to be transferred.

              The  suffixes  are  as  follows:  "K"  (or  "KiB") is a kibibyte
              (1024), "M" (or "MiB") is a mebibyte (1024*1024),  and  "G"  (or
              "GiB")  is  a gibibyte (1024*1024*1024).  If you want the multi-
              plier to be 1000 instead of  1024,  use  "KB",  "MB",  or  "GB".
              (Note: lower-case is also accepted for all values.)  Finally, if
              the suffix ends in either "+1" or "-1", the value will be offset
              by one byte in the indicated direction.

              Examples:    --max-size=1.5mb-1    is    1499999    bytes,   and
              --max-size=2g+1 is 2147483649 bytes.

              Note  that  rsync  versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did   not   allow
              --max-size=0.

       --min-size=SIZE
              This  tells rsync to avoid transferring any file that is smaller
              than the specified SIZE, which  can  help  in  not  transferring
              small,  junk files.  See the --max-size option for a description
              of SIZE and other information.

              Note  that  rsync  versions  prior  to  3.1.0  did   not   allow
              --min-size=0.

       -B, --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This  forces the block size used in rsync's delta-transfer algo-
              rithm to a fixed value.  It is normally selected  based  on  the
              size  of  each file being updated.  See the technical report for
              details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This option allows you to choose  an  alternative  remote  shell
              program  to  use  for communication between the local and remote
              copies of rsync. Typically, rsync is configured to  use  ssh  by
              default, but you may prefer to use rsh on a local network.

              If  this  option is used with [user@]host::module/path, then the
              remote shell COMMAND will be used to run an rsync daemon on  the
              remote  host,  and  all  data  will  be transmitted through that
              remote shell connection, rather than  through  a  direct  socket
              connection  to  a  running rsync daemon on the remote host.  See
              the section "USING RSYNC-DAEMON FEATURES VIA A REMOTE-SHELL CON-
              NECTION" above.

              Command-line  arguments  are  permitted in COMMAND provided that
              COMMAND is presented to rsync as a single  argument.   You  must
              use  spaces  (not tabs or other whitespace) to separate the com-
              mand and args from each other, and you can  use  single-  and/or
              double-quotes  to  preserve spaces in an argument (but not back-
              slashes).  Note that  doubling  a  single-quote  inside  a  sin-
              gle-quoted  string  gives  you a single-quote; likewise for dou-
              ble-quotes (though you need to pay  attention  to  which  quotes
              your  shell is parsing and which quotes rsync is parsing).  Some
              examples:

                  -e 'ssh -p 2234'
                  -e 'ssh -o "ProxyCommand nohup ssh firewall nc -w1 %h %p"'

              (Note that ssh users  can  alternately  customize  site-specific
              connect options in their .ssh/config file.)

              You can also choose the remote shell program using the RSYNC_RSH
              environment variable, which accepts the same range of values  as
              -e.

              See  also  the  --blocking-io  option  which is affected by this
              option.

       --rsync-path=PROGRAM
              Use this to specify what program is to  be  run  on  the  remote
              machine  to start-up rsync.  Often used when rsync is not in the
              default           remote-shell's           path            (e.g.
              --rsync-path=/usr/local/bin/rsync).   Note  that  PROGRAM is run
              with the help of a shell, so it can be any program,  script,  or
              command  sequence you'd care to run, so long as it does not cor-
              rupt the standard-in & standard-out that rsync is using to  com-
              municate.

              One  tricky  example  is to set a different default directory on
              the remote machine for use  with  the  --relative  option.   For
              instance:

                  rsync -avR --rsync-path="cd /a/b && rsync" host:c/d /e/

       -M, --remote-option=OPTION
              This  option is used for more advanced situations where you want
              certain effects to be limited to one side of the transfer  only.
              For   instance,   if   you  want  to  pass  --log-file=FILE  and
              --fake-super to the remote system, specify it like this:

                  rsync -av -M --log-file=foo -M--fake-super src/ dest/

              If you want to have an option affect only the local  side  of  a
              transfer  when it normally affects both sides, send its negation
              to the remote side.  Like this:

                  rsync -av -x -M--no-x src/ dest/

              Be cautious using this, as it is possible to  toggle  an  option
              that  will  cause rsync to have a different idea about what data
              to expect next over the socket, and that will make it fail in  a
              cryptic fashion.

              Note  that it is best to use a separate --remote-option for each
              option you want to pass.  This makes your useage compatible with
              the --protect-args option.  If that option is off, any spaces in
              your remote options will be split by the remote shell unless you
              take steps to protect them.

              When performing a local transfer, the "local" side is the sender
              and the "remote" side is the receiver.

              Note some versions of the popt option-parsing library have a bug
              in  them  that  prevents  you from using an adjacent arg with an
              equal  in   it   next   to   a   short   option   letter   (e.g.
              -M--log-file=/tmp/foo.   If  this  bug  affects  your version of
              popt, you can use the version of  popt  that  is  included  with
              rsync.

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This  is a useful shorthand for excluding a broad range of files
              that you often don't want to transfer between systems. It uses a
              similar  algorithm  to  CVS  to  determine  if  a file should be
              ignored.

              The exclude list is initialized to exclude the  following  items
              (these  initial items are marked as perishable -- see the FILTER
              RULES section):

                     RCS  SCCS  CVS  CVS.adm   RCSLOG   cvslog.*   tags   TAGS
                     .make.state  .nse_depinfo *~ #* .#* ,* _$* *$ *.old *.bak
                     *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.olb *.o *.obj *.so  *.exe
                     *.Z *.elc *.ln core .svn/ .git/ .hg/ .bzr/

              then,  files  listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore are added to the list
              and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE environment variable  (all
              cvsignore names are delimited by whitespace).

              Finally, any file is ignored if it is in the same directory as a
              .cvsignore file and matches one of the patterns listed  therein.
              Unlike rsync's filter/exclude files, these patterns are split on
              whitespace.  See the cvs(1) manual for more information.

              If you're combining -C with your own --filter rules, you  should
              note that these CVS excludes are appended at the end of your own
              rules, regardless of  where  the  -C  was  placed  on  the  com-
              mand-line.   This makes them a lower priority than any rules you
              specified explicitly.  If you want to control  where  these  CVS
              excludes  get  inserted  into your filter rules, you should omit
              the -C as a command-line option and use a combination of  --fil-
              ter=:C  and  --filter=-C  (either  on  your  command-line  or by
              putting the ":C" and "-C" rules into a  filter  file  with  your
              other rules).  The first option turns on the per-directory scan-
              ning for the .cvsignore file.  The second option does a one-time
              import of the CVS excludes mentioned above.

       -f, --filter=RULE
              This  option allows you to add rules to selectively exclude cer-
              tain files from the list of files to  be  transferred.  This  is
              most useful in combination with a recursive transfer.

              You  may use as many --filter options on the command line as you
              like to build up the list of files to exclude.   If  the  filter
              contains whitespace, be sure to quote it so that the shell gives
              the rule to rsync as a single argument.   The  text  below  also
              mentions  that  you  can  use an underscore to replace the space
              that separates a rule from its arg.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this
              option.

       -F     The  -F  option  is a shorthand for adding two --filter rules to
              your command.  The first time it is used is a shorthand for this
              rule:

                 --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'

              This  tells  rsync to look for per-directory .rsync-filter files
              that have been sprinkled through the  hierarchy  and  use  their
              rules  to  filter the files in the transfer.  If -F is repeated,
              it is a shorthand for this rule:

                 --filter='exclude .rsync-filter'

              This filters out the .rsync-filter  files  themselves  from  the
              transfer.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES  section for detailed information on how
              these options work.

       --exclude=PATTERN
              This option is a simplified form of  the  --filter  option  that
              defaults  to  an  exclude  rule  and  does  not  allow  the full
              rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See the FILTER RULES section for detailed  information  on  this
              option.

       --exclude-from=FILE
              This option is related to the --exclude option, but it specifies
              a FILE that contains exclude patterns  (one  per  line).   Blank
              lines  in  the  file  and  lines  starting  with  ';' or '#' are
              ignored.  If FILE is -, the list  will  be  read  from  standard
              input.

       --include=PATTERN
              This  option  is  a  simplified form of the --filter option that
              defaults to  an  include  rule  and  does  not  allow  the  full
              rule-parsing syntax of normal filter rules.

              See  the  FILTER  RULES section for detailed information on this
              option.

       --include-from=FILE
              This option is related to the --include option, but it specifies
              a  FILE  that  contains  include patterns (one per line).  Blank
              lines in the file  and  lines  starting  with  ';'  or  '#'  are
              ignored.   If  FILE  is  -,  the list will be read from standard
              input.

       --files-from=FILE
              Using this option allows you to specify the exact list of  files
              to  transfer  (as read from the specified FILE or - for standard
              input).  It also tweaks the default behavior of  rsync  to  make
              transferring just the specified files and directories easier:

              o      The  --relative  (-R)  option is implied, which preserves
                     the path information that is specified for each  item  in
                     the file (use --no-relative or --no-R if you want to turn
                     that off).

              o      The --dirs (-d) option  is  implied,  which  will  create
                     directories  specified  in  the  list  on the destination
                     rather than  noisily  skipping  them  (use  --no-dirs  or
                     --no-d if you want to turn that off).

              o      The  --archive  (-a)  option's  behavior  does  not imply
                     --recursive (-r), so specify it explicitly, if  you  want
                     it.

              o      These  side-effects change the default state of rsync, so
                     the position of  the  --files-from  option  on  the  com-
                     mand-line  has no bearing on how other options are parsed
                     (e.g. -a works the same before or after --files-from,  as
                     does --no-R and all other options).

              The  filenames  that  are read from the FILE are all relative to
              the source dir -- any leading slashes are removed  and  no  ".."
              references  are  allowed  to go higher than the source dir.  For
              example, take this command:

                 rsync -a --files-from=/tmp/foo /usr remote:/backup

              If /tmp/foo contains the string  "bin"  (or  even  "/bin"),  the
              /usr/bin  directory will be created as /backup/bin on the remote
              host.  If it contains "bin/"  (note  the  trailing  slash),  the
              immediate  contents of the directory would also be sent (without
              needing to be explicitly mentioned in the file -- this began  in
              version  2.6.4).   In  both cases, if the -r option was enabled,
              that dir's entire hierarchy would also be transferred  (keep  in
              mind that -r needs to be specified explicitly with --files-from,
              since it is not implied by -a).  Also note that  the  effect  of
              the  (enabled by default) --relative option is to duplicate only
              the path info that is read from the file -- it  does  not  force
              the duplication of the source-spec path (/usr in this case).

              In  addition,  the --files-from file can be read from the remote
              host instead of the local host if you specify a "host:" in front
              of the file (the host must match one end of the transfer).  As a
              short-cut, you can specify just a prefix of ":" to mean "use the
              remote end of the transfer".  For example:

                 rsync -a --files-from=:/path/file-list src:/ /tmp/copy

              This  would  copy all the files specified in the /path/file-list
              file that was located on the remote "src" host.

              If the --iconv and --protect-args options are specified and  the
              --files-from  filenames are being sent from one host to another,
              the filenames will be translated from the sending host's charset
              to the receiving host's charset.

              NOTE:  sorting the list of files in the --files-from input helps
              rsync to be more efficient, as it  will  avoid  re-visiting  the
              path  elements that are shared between adjacent entries.  If the
              input is not sorted, some path  elements  (implied  directories)
              may  end up being scanned multiple times, and rsync will eventu-
              ally unduplicate them after they get turned into file-list  ele-
              ments.

       -0, --from0
              This  tells  rsync that the rules/filenames it reads from a file
              are terminated by a null ('\0') character,  not  a  NL,  CR,  or
              CR+LF.     This    affects    --exclude-from,    --include-from,
              --files-from, and any merged files specified in a --filter rule.
              It  does  not  affect --cvs-exclude (since all names read from a
              .cvsignore file are split on whitespace).

       -s, --protect-args
              This option sends all filenames and most options to  the  remote
              rsync without allowing the remote shell to interpret them.  This
              means that spaces are not split in names, and  any  non-wildcard
              special  characters  are  not  translated  (such  as ~, $, ;, &,
              etc.).  Wildcards are expanded  on  the  remote  host  by  rsync
              (instead of the shell doing it).

              If  you  use  this  option with --iconv, the args related to the
              remote side will also be translated from the local to the remote
              character-set.   The  translation  happens before wild-cards are
              expanded.  See also the --files-from option.

              You may also control  this  option  via  the  RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
              environment  variable.   If  this variable has a non-zero value,
              this option will be enabled by default,  otherwise  it  will  be
              disabled  by  default.  Either state is overridden by a manually
              specified positive or negative version of this option (note that
              --no-s  and --no-protect-args are the negative versions).  Since
              this option was first introduced in 3.0.0, you'll need  to  make
              sure  it's  disabled  if you ever need to interact with a remote
              rsync that is older than that.

              Rsync can also be configured (at build time) to have this option
              enabled  by  default (with is overridden by both the environment
              and the command-line).  This option will eventually become a new
              default setting at some as-yet-undetermined point in the future.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This  option  instructs  rsync to use DIR as a scratch directory
              when creating temporary copies of the files transferred  on  the
              receiving  side.   The default behavior is to create each tempo-
              rary file in the same directory as  the  associated  destination
              file.   Beginning  with  rsync 3.1.1, the temp-file names inside
              the specified DIR will not be prefixed with an extra dot (though
              they will still have a random suffix added).

              This option is most often used when the receiving disk partition
              does not have enough free space to hold a copy  of  the  largest
              file  in  the  transfer.   In  this  case (i.e. when the scratch
              directory is on a different disk partition), rsync will  not  be
              able  to rename each received temporary file over the top of the
              associated destination file,  but  instead  must  copy  it  into
              place.   Rsync does this by copying the file over the top of the
              destination file, which means that  the  destination  file  will
              contain  truncated data during this copy.  If this were not done
              this way (even if the destination file were first  removed,  the
              data  locally  copied  to  a  temporary  file in the destination
              directory, and then renamed into place) it would be possible for
              the old file to continue taking up disk space (if someone had it
              open), and thus there might not be enough room to  fit  the  new
              version on the disk at the same time.

              If  you  are using this option for reasons other than a shortage
              of  disk  space,  you  may  wish  to   combine   it   with   the
              --delay-updates  option, which will ensure that all copied files
              get put into subdirectories in the destination hierarchy, await-
              ing  the  end of the transfer.  If you don't have enough room to
              duplicate all the arriving files on the  destination  partition,
              another way to tell rsync that you aren't overly concerned about
              disk space is to use the --partial-dir option  with  a  relative
              path; because this tells rsync that it is OK to stash off a copy
              of a single file in a subdir in the destination hierarchy, rsync
              will  use  the  partial-dir  as a staging area to bring over the
              copied file, and then rename it into place from there. (Specify-
              ing  a  --partial-dir  with  an absolute path does not have this
              side-effect.)

       -y, --fuzzy
              This option tells rsync that it should look for a basis file for
              any  destination  file  that  is missing.  The current algorithm
              looks in the same directory as the destination file for either a
              file  that  has  an identical size and modified-time, or a simi-
              larly-named file.  If found, rsync uses the fuzzy basis file  to
              try to speed up the transfer.

              If  the  option is repeated, the fuzzy scan will also be done in
              any matching alternate destination directories that  are  speci-
              fied via --compare-dest, --copy-dest, or --link-dest.

              Note  that  the  use of the --delete option might get rid of any
              potential fuzzy-match files, so  either  use  --delete-after  or
              specify some filename exclusions if you need to prevent this.

       --compare-dest=DIR
              This  option  instructs  rsync  to  use  DIR  on the destination
              machine as an additional hierarchy to compare destination  files
              against  doing transfers (if the files are missing in the desti-
              nation directory).  If a file is found in DIR that is  identical
              to  the  sender's  file, the file will NOT be transferred to the
              destination directory.  This is useful  for  creating  a  sparse
              backup  of  just files that have changed from an earlier backup.
              This option is typically used to copy into an  empty  (or  newly
              created) directory.

              Beginning  in version 2.6.4, multiple --compare-dest directories
              may be provided, which will cause rsync to search  the  list  in
              the  order  specified  for  an exact match.  If a match is found
              that differs only in attributes, a local copy is  made  and  the
              attributes  updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file from
              one of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up  the  trans-
              fer.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --copy-dest and --link-dest.

              NOTE: beginning with version 3.1.0, rsync  will  remove  a  file
              from  a  non-empty  destination  hierarchy  if an exact match is
              found in one of the compare-dest  hierarchies  (making  the  end
              result more closely match a fresh copy).

       --copy-dest=DIR
              This  option  behaves  like  --compare-dest, but rsync will also
              copy unchanged files found in DIR to the  destination  directory
              using a local copy.  This is useful for doing transfers to a new
              destination while leaving existing files intact, and then  doing
              a  flash-cutover  when  all  files have been successfully trans-
              ferred.

              Multiple --copy-dest directories may  be  provided,  which  will
              cause  rsync  to  search  the list in the order specified for an
              unchanged file.  If a match is not found, a basis file from  one
              of the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the transfer.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --link-dest.

       --link-dest=DIR
              This option behaves like --copy-dest, but  unchanged  files  are
              hard  linked  from  DIR to the destination directory.  The files
              must be identical in all preserved attributes (e.g. permissions,
              possibly  ownership)  in  order  for  the  files  to  be  linked
              together.  An example:

                rsync -av --link-dest=$PWD/prior_dir host:src_dir/ new_dir/

              If file's aren't linking, double-check their  attributes.   Also
              check  if  some attributes are getting forced outside of rsync's
              control, such a mount option that  squishes  root  to  a  single
              user,  or  mounts a removable drive with generic ownership (such
              as OS X's "Ignore ownership on this volume" option).

              Beginning in version 2.6.4, multiple --link-dest directories may
              be  provided,  which  will cause rsync to search the list in the
              order specified for an exact match.  If a match  is  found  that
              differs  only  in  attributes,  a  local  copy  is  made and the
              attributes updated.  If a match is not found, a basis file  from
              one  of  the DIRs will be selected to try to speed up the trans-
              fer.

              This option works best when copying into  an  empty  destination
              hierarchy,  as  existing files may get their attributes tweaked,
              and that can affect alternate destination files via  hard-links.
              Also,  itemizing  of  changes  can get a bit muddled.  Note that
              prior to version 3.1.0, an alternate-directory exact match would
              never be found (nor linked into the destination) when a destina-
              tion file already exists.

              Note that if you combine this option with --ignore-times,  rsync
              will not link any files together because it only links identical
              files together as a substitute for transferring the file,  never
              as an additional check after the file is updated.

              If  DIR  is  a  relative path, it is relative to the destination
              directory.  See also --compare-dest and --copy-dest.

              Note that rsync versions prior to 2.6.1 had  a  bug  that  could
              prevent  --link-dest  from working properly for a non-super-user
              when -o was specified (or implied by -a).  You  can  work-around
              this bug by avoiding the -o option when sending to an old rsync.

       -z, --compress
              With  this  option, rsync compresses the file data as it is sent
              to the destination machine, which reduces  the  amount  of  data
              being  transmitted  -- something that is useful over a slow con-
              nection.

              Note that this  option  typically  achieves  better  compression
              ratios  than can be achieved by using a compressing remote shell
              or a compressing transport because it  takes  advantage  of  the
              implicit  information  in  the matching data blocks that are not
              explicitly sent over the connection.   This  matching-data  com-
              pression  comes at a cost of CPU, though, and can be disabled by
              repeating the -z option, but only if both  sides  are  at  least
              version 3.1.1.

              Note that if your version of rsync was compiled with an external
              zlib (instead of the zlib that comes packaged with  rsync)  then
              it   will  not  support  the  old-style  compression,  only  the
              new-style (repeated-option) compression.   In  the  future  this
              new-style compression will likely become the default.

              The  client  rsync  requests new-style compression on the server
              via the  --new-compress  option,  so  if  you  see  that  option
              rejected  it  means that the server is not new enough to support
              -zz.  Rsync also accepts the --old-compress option for a  future
              time when new-style compression becomes the default.

              See the --skip-compress option for the default list of file suf-
              fixes that will not be compressed.

       --compress-level=NUM
              Explicitly set the compression level  to  use  (see  --compress)
              instead  of  letting it default.  If NUM is non-zero, the --com-
              press option is implied.

       --skip-compress=LIST
              Override the list of file suffixes that will not be  compressed.
              The  LIST  should be one or more file suffixes (without the dot)
              separated by slashes (/).

              You may specify an empty string to indicate that no file  should
              be skipped.

              Simple  character-class matching is supported: each must consist
              of a list of letters inside the square brackets (e.g. no special
              classes, such as "[:alpha:]", are supported, and '-' has no spe-
              cial meaning).

              The characters asterisk (*) and question-mark (?) have  no  spe-
              cial meaning.

              Here's  an example that specifies 6 suffixes to skip (since 1 of
              the 5 rules matches 2 suffixes):

                  --skip-compress=gz/jpg/mp[34]/7z/bz2

              The default list of suffixes that will not be compressed is this
              (in this version of rsync):

              7z  ace  avi bz2 deb gpg gz iso jpeg jpg lz lzma lzo mov mp3 mp4
              ogg png rar rpm rzip tbz tgz tlz txz xz z zip

              This list will be replaced by your --skip-compress list  in  all
              but  one  situation:  a  copy  from a daemon rsync will add your
              skipped suffixes to its list of non-compressing files  (and  its
              list may be configured to a different default).

       --numeric-ids
              With  this option rsync will transfer numeric group and user IDs
              rather than using user and group names and mapping them at  both
              ends.

              By  default  rsync will use the username and groupname to deter-
              mine what ownership to give files. The special  uid  0  and  the
              special  group  0  are never mapped via user/group names even if
              the --numeric-ids option is not specified.

              If a user or group has no name on the source system or it has no
              match  on  the  destination system, then the numeric ID from the
              source system is used instead.  See also  the  comments  on  the
              "use  chroot" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage for information
              on how the chroot setting affects rsync's ability to look up the
              names of the users and groups and what you can do about it.

       --usermap=STRING, --groupmap=STRING
              These  options allow you to specify users and groups that should
              be mapped to other values by the receiving side.  The STRING  is
              one  or  more  FROM:TO pairs of values separated by commas.  Any
              matching FROM value from the sender is replaced with a TO  value
              from  the  receiver.   You may specify usernames or user IDs for
              the FROM and TO values,  and  the  FROM  value  may  also  be  a
              wild-card  string,  which  will  be matched against the sender's
              names (wild-cards do NOT match against ID  numbers,  though  see
              below  for why a '*' matches everything).  You may instead spec-
              ify a range of ID numbers via an inclusive range: LOW-HIGH.  For
              example:

                --usermap=0-99:nobody,wayne:admin,*:normal --groupmap=usr:1,1:usr

              The first match in the list is the one that is used.  You should
              specify all your user mappings using a single --usermap  option,
              and/or all your group mappings using a single --groupmap option.

              Note  that  the  sender's  name for the 0 user and group are not
              transmitted to the receiver, so you should  either  match  these
              values  using  a  0, or use the names in effect on the receiving
              side (typically "root").  All other FROM names  match  those  in
              use on the sending side.  All TO names match those in use on the
              receiving side.

              Any IDs that do not have a name on the sending side are  treated
              as  having  an  empty  name  for  the purpose of matching.  This
              allows them to be matched via a "*" or using an empty name.  For
              instance:

                --usermap=:nobody --groupmap=*:nobody

              When  the --numeric-ids option is used, the sender does not send
              any names, so all the IDs are treated as having an  empty  name.
              This  means that you will need to specify numeric FROM values if
              you want to map these nameless IDs to different values.

              For the --usermap option to have any effect,  the  -o  (--owner)
              option  must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need to
              be running as a super-user (see also the  --fake-super  option).
              For  the --groupmap option to have any effect, the -g (--groups)
              option must be used (or implied), and the receiver will need  to
              have permissions to set that group.

       --chown=USER:GROUP
              This  option  forces  all  files  to be owned by USER with group
              GROUP.  This is a simpler interface  than  using  --usermap  and
              --groupmap  directly,  but it is implemented using those options
              internally, so you cannot mix them.  If either the USER or GROUP
              is  empty, no mapping for the omitted user/group will occur.  If
              GROUP is empty, the trailing colon may be omitted, but  if  USER
              is empty, a leading colon must be supplied.

              If  you  specify  "--chown=foo:bar,  this is exactly the same as
              specifying "--usermap=*:foo --groupmap=*:bar", only easier.

       --timeout=TIMEOUT
              This option allows you to set a maximum I/O timeout in  seconds.
              If no data is transferred for the specified time then rsync will
              exit. The default is 0, which means no timeout.

       --contimeout
              This option allows you to set the amount of time that rsync will
              wait  for  its connection to an rsync daemon to succeed.  If the
              timeout is reached, rsync exits with an error.

       --address
              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when connect-
              ing  to  an  rsync  daemon.   The --address option allows you to
              specify a specific IP address (or hostname)  to  bind  to.   See
              also this option in the --daemon mode section.

       --port=PORT
              This  specifies  an alternate TCP port number to use rather than
              the default of 873.  This is only needed if you  are  using  the
              double-colon  (::) syntax to connect with an rsync daemon (since
              the URL syntax has a way to specify the port as a  part  of  the
              URL).  See also this option in the --daemon mode section.

       --sockopts
              This  option can provide endless fun for people who like to tune
              their systems to the utmost degree. You can  set  all  sorts  of
              socket  options  which  may  make transfers faster (or slower!).
              Read the man page for the setsockopt() system call  for  details
              on  some  of  the  options you may be able to set. By default no
              special socket options are set. This only affects direct  socket
              connections  to  a remote rsync daemon.  This option also exists
              in the --daemon mode section.

       --blocking-io
              This tells rsync to use blocking I/O  when  launching  a  remote
              shell  transport.   If  the remote shell is either rsh or remsh,
              rsync defaults to using blocking I/O, otherwise it  defaults  to
              using  non-blocking  I/O.   (Note  that ssh prefers non-blocking
              I/O.)

       --outbuf=MODE
              This sets the output buffering mode.  The mode can be None  (aka
              Unbuffered), Line, or Block (aka Full).  You may specify as lit-
              tle as a single letter for the mode,  and  use  upper  or  lower
              case.

              The  main use of this option is to change Full buffering to Line
              buffering when rsync's output is going to a file or pipe.

       -i, --itemize-changes
              Requests a simple itemized list of the changes  that  are  being
              made to each file, including attribute changes.  This is exactly
              the same as specifying --out-format='%i %n%L'.   If  you  repeat
              the option, unchanged files will also be output, but only if the
              receiving rsync is at least version 2.6.7 (you can use -vv  with
              older  versions  of  rsync, but that also turns on the output of
              other verbose messages).

              The "%i" escape has a cryptic output that is  11  letters  long.
              The  general  format  is like the string YXcstpoguax, where Y is
              replaced by the type of update being done, X is replaced by  the
              file-type,  and  the other letters represent attributes that may
              be output if they are being modified.

              The update types that replace the Y are as follows:

              o      A < means that a file is being transferred to the  remote
                     host (sent).

              o      A  >  means that a file is being transferred to the local
                     host (received).

              o      A c means that a local change/creation is  occurring  for
                     the  item  (such  as  the  creation of a directory or the
                     changing of a symlink, etc.).

              o      A h means that the item is a hard link  to  another  item
                     (requires --hard-links).

              o      A  .  means that the item is not being updated (though it
                     might have attributes that are being modified).

              o      A * means that the rest of the itemized-output area  con-
                     tains a message (e.g. "deleting").

              The  file-types  that replace the X are: f for a file, a d for a
              directory, an L for a symlink, a D for a device, and a S  for  a
              special file (e.g. named sockets and fifos).

              The  other  letters  in  the string above are the actual letters
              that will be output if the associated attribute for the item  is
              being  updated or a "." for no change.  Three exceptions to this
              are: (1) a newly created item replaces each letter with  a  "+",
              (2)  an identical item replaces the dots with spaces, and (3) an
              unknown attribute replaces each letter with a "?" (this can hap-
              pen when talking to an older rsync).

              The attribute that is associated with each letter is as follows:

              o      A  c  means  either  that  a regular file has a different
                     checksum (requires --checksum) or that a symlink, device,
                     or  special  file  has a changed value.  Note that if you
                     are sending files to an rsync prior to 3.0.1, this change
                     flag  will be present only for checksum-differing regular
                     files.

              o      A s means the size of a regular  file  is  different  and
                     will be updated by the file transfer.

              o      A t means the modification time is different and is being
                     updated to the sender's  value  (requires  --times).   An
                     alternate  value  of  T  means that the modification time
                     will be set to the transfer time, which  happens  when  a
                     file/symlink/device is updated without --times and when a
                     symlink is changed and the receiver can't set  its  time.
                     (Note:  when  using  an rsync 3.0.0 client, you might see
                     the s flag combined with t instead of the proper  T  flag
                     for this time-setting failure.)

              o      A  p  means  the  permissions are different and are being
                     updated to the sender's value (requires --perms).

              o      An o means the owner is different and is being updated to
                     the sender's value (requires --owner and super-user priv-
                     ileges).

              o      A g means the group is different and is being updated  to
                     the sender's value (requires --group and the authority to
                     set the group).

              o      The u slot is reserved for future use.

              o      The a means that the ACL information changed.

              o      The x  means  that  the  extended  attribute  information
                     changed.

              One  other  output  is  possible:  when deleting files, the "%i"
              will output the string "*deleting" for each item that  is  being
              removed  (assuming that you are talking to a recent enough rsync
              that it logs deletions instead of outputting them as  a  verbose
              message).

       --out-format=FORMAT
              This allows you to specify exactly what the rsync client outputs
              to the user on a per-update basis.  The format is a text  string
              containing  embedded  single-character escape sequences prefixed
              with a percent (%) character.   A default format  of  "%n%L"  is
              assumed if either --info=name or -v is specified (this tells you
              just the name of the file and, if the item is a link,  where  it
              points).  For a full list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              Specifying  the  --out-format  option  implies  the  --info=name
              option,  which  will  mention  each  file,  dir,  etc. that gets
              updated in a significant way (a transferred  file,  a  recreated
              symlink/device,  or  a  touched directory).  In addition, if the
              itemize-changes escape (%i) is included in the string  (e.g.  if
              the  --itemize-changes  option  was  used), the logging of names
              increases to mention any item that is changed  in  any  way  (as
              long  as the receiving side is at least 2.6.4).  See the --item-
              ize-changes option for a description of the output of "%i".

              Rsync will output the out-format string prior to a file's trans-
              fer  unless  one of the transfer-statistic escapes is requested,
              in which case the logging is done  at  the  end  of  the  file's
              transfer.  When this late logging is in effect and --progress is
              also specified, rsync will also output  the  name  of  the  file
              being  transferred  prior to its progress information (followed,
              of course, by the out-format output).

       --log-file=FILE
              This option causes rsync to log what it  is  doing  to  a  file.
              This  is  similar  to the logging that a daemon does, but can be
              requested for the client  side  and/or  the  server  side  of  a
              non-daemon  transfer.  If specified as a client option, transfer
              logging will be enabled with a default format of "%i %n%L".  See
              the --log-file-format option if you wish to override this.

              Here's  a  example  command that requests the remote side to log
              what is happening:

                rsync -av --remote-option=--log-file=/tmp/rlog src/ dest/

              This is very useful if you need to debug  why  a  connection  is
              closing unexpectedly.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
              This  allows  you  to specify exactly what per-update logging is
              put into the file specified by the --log-file option (which must
              also  be  specified for this option to have any effect).  If you
              specify an empty string, updated files will not be mentioned  in
              the log file.  For a list of the possible escape characters, see
              the "log format" setting in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

              The default FORMAT used if  --log-file  is  specified  and  this
              option is not is '%i %n%L'.

       --stats
              This  tells  rsync  to  print a verbose set of statistics on the
              file transfer,  allowing  you  to  tell  how  effective  rsync's
              delta-transfer  algorithm  is  for  your  data.   This option is
              equivalent to --info=stats2 if combined with 0 or 1 -v  options,
              or --info=stats3 if combined with 2 or more -v options.

              The current statistics are as follows:

              o      Number  of  files  is  the  count  of all "files" (in the
                     generic sense),  which  includes  directories,  symlinks,
                     etc.   The  total  count  will  be  followed by a list of
                     counts by filetype (if the total is non-zero).  For exam-
                     ple:  "(reg:  5,  dir:  3,  link: 2, dev: 1, special: 1)"
                     lists the totals for  regular  files,  directories,  sym-
                     links, devices, and special files.  If any of value is 0,
                     it is completely omitted from the list.

              o      Number of created files is the count of how many  "files"
                     (generic  sense)  were  created  (as opposed to updated).
                     The total count will be followed by a list of  counts  by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).

              o      Number  of deleted files is the count of how many "files"
                     (generic sense) were created  (as  opposed  to  updated).
                     The  total  count will be followed by a list of counts by
                     filetype (if the total is non-zero).  Note that this line
                     is  only  output  if deletions are in effect, and only if
                     protocol 31 is being used (the default for rsync 3.1.x).

              o      Number of regular files transferred is the count of  nor-
                     mal  files  that  were updated via rsync's delta-transfer
                     algorithm, which does not include  dirs,  symlinks,  etc.
                     Note  that rsync 3.1.0 added the word "regular" into this
                     heading.

              o      Total file size is the total sum of all file sizes in the
                     transfer.   This  does not count any size for directories
                     or special files, but does include the size of symlinks.

              o      Total transferred file size is the total sum of all files
                     sizes for just the transferred files.

              o      Literal  data  is  how much unmatched file-update data we
                     had to send to  the  receiver  for  it  to  recreate  the
                     updated files.

              o      Matched  data  is  how much data the receiver got locally
                     when recreating the updated files.

              o      File list size is how big the file-list data was when the
                     sender sent it to the receiver.  This is smaller than the
                     in-memory size for the file list due to some  compressing
                     of duplicated data when rsync sends the list.

              o      File  list  generation time is the number of seconds that
                     the sender spent creating the file list.  This requires a
                     modern rsync on the sending side for this to be present.

              o      File list transfer time is the number of seconds that the
                     sender spent sending the file list to the receiver.

              o      Total bytes sent is the count of all the bytes that rsync
                     sent from the client side to the server side.

              o      Total  bytes  received  is  the  count of all non-message
                     bytes that rsync received by the  client  side  from  the
                     server  side.   "Non-message"  bytes  means that we don't
                     count the bytes for a verbose  message  that  the  server
                     sent to us, which makes the stats more consistent.

       -8, --8-bit-output
              This  tells  rsync to leave all high-bit characters unescaped in
              the output instead of trying to test  them  to  see  if  they're
              valid  in the current locale and escaping the invalid ones.  All
              control characters (but never tabs) are always escaped,  regard-
              less of this option's setting.

              The  escape  idiom  that started in 2.6.7 is to output a literal
              backslash (\) and a hash (#), followed by exactly 3  octal  dig-
              its.  For example, a newline would output as "\#012".  A literal
              backslash that is in a filename is not escaped unless it is fol-
              lowed by a hash and 3 digits (0-9).

       -h, --human-readable
              Output  numbers  in  a  more human-readable format.  There are 3
              possible levels:  (1) output numbers with  a  separator  between
              each  set  of 3 digits (either a comma or a period, depending on
              if the decimal point is represented by a period or a comma); (2)
              output  numbers  in  units  of 1000 (with a character suffix for
              larger units -- see below); (3) output numbers in units of 1024.

              The default is human-readable level 1.  Each -h option increases
              the  level  by one.  You can take the level down to 0 (to output
              numbers as pure digits)  by  specifing  the  --no-human-readable
              (--no-h) option.

              The  unit  letters  that  are  appended in levels 2 and 3 are: K
              (kilo), M (mega),  G  (giga),  or  T  (tera).   For  example,  a
              1234567-byte  file  would  output  as 1.23M in level-2 (assuming
              that a period is your local decimal point).

              Backward compatibility note:  versions of rsync prior  to  3.1.0
              do not support human-readable level 1, and they default to level
              0.  Thus, specifying one or two -h options will behave in a com-
              parable  manner  in  old  and new versions as long as you didn't
              specify a --no-h option prior to one or more  -h  options.   See
              the --list-only option for one difference.

       --partial
              By  default, rsync will delete any partially transferred file if
              the transfer is interrupted. In some circumstances  it  is  more
              desirable  to keep partially transferred files. Using the --par-
              tial option tells rsync to keep the partial  file  which  should
              make a subsequent transfer of the rest of the file much faster.

       --partial-dir=DIR
              A  better way to keep partial files than the --partial option is
              to specify a DIR that will be used  to  hold  the  partial  data
              (instead  of  writing  it  out to the destination file).  On the
              next transfer, rsync will use a file found in this dir  as  data
              to  speed  up  the resumption of the transfer and then delete it
              after it has served its purpose.

              Note that if --whole-file is specified (or  implied),  any  par-
              tial-dir  file  that  is  found for a file that is being updated
              will simply be removed (since rsync  is  sending  files  without
              using rsync's delta-transfer algorithm).

              Rsync will create the DIR if it is missing (just the last dir --
              not the whole path).  This makes it easy to use a relative  path
              (such  as  "--partial-dir=.rsync-partial")  to have rsync create
              the partial-directory in the destination file's  directory  when
              needed,  and  then  remove  it  again  when  the partial file is
              deleted.

              If the partial-dir value is not an absolute path, rsync will add
              an  exclude rule at the end of all your existing excludes.  This
              will prevent the sending of any partial-dir files that may exist
              on the sending side, and will also prevent the untimely deletion
              of partial-dir items on the receiving  side.   An  example:  the
              above  --partial-dir  option would add the equivalent of "-f '-p
              .rsync-partial/'" at the end of any other filter rules.

              If you are supplying your own exclude rules, you may need to add
              your  own  exclude/hide/protect rule for the partial-dir because
              (1) the auto-added rule may be ineffective at the  end  of  your
              other  rules,  or  (2)  you may wish to override rsync's exclude
              choice.  For instance, if you want to make  rsync  clean-up  any
              left-over  partial-dirs  that  may  be  lying around, you should
              specify --delete-after and add a "risk" filter rule, e.g.  -f 'R
              .rsync-partial/'.  (Avoid using --delete-before or --delete-dur-
              ing unless you don't need rsync to use any of the left-over par-
              tial-dir data during the current run.)

              IMPORTANT:  the  --partial-dir  should  not be writable by other
              users or it is a security risk.  E.g. AVOID "/tmp".

              You can also set the  partial-dir  value  the  RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR
              environment  variable.  Setting this in the environment does not
              force --partial to be enabled, but rather it affects where  par-
              tial  files  go  when  --partial  is  specified.   For instance,
              instead of using --partial-dir=.rsync-tmp along with --progress,
              you  could  set RSYNC_PARTIAL_DIR=.rsync-tmp in your environment
              and then just use the -P option  to  turn  on  the  use  of  the
              .rsync-tmp  dir  for partial transfers.  The only times that the
              --partial option does not look for this  environment  value  are
              (1) when --inplace was specified (since --inplace conflicts with
              --partial-dir), and (2) when --delay-updates was specified  (see
              below).

              For  the  purposes  of the daemon-config's "refuse options" set-
              ting, --partial-dir does not imply --partial.  This is so that a
              refusal  of  the  --partial  option  can be used to disallow the
              overwriting of destination files with a partial transfer,  while
              still allowing the safer idiom provided by --partial-dir.

       --delay-updates
              This  option puts the temporary file from each updated file into
              a holding directory until the end of the transfer, at which time
              all  the files are renamed into place in rapid succession.  This
              attempts to make the updating of the files a little more atomic.
              By  default the files are placed into a directory named ".~tmp~"
              in each file's destination directory, but  if  you've  specified
              the  --partial-dir  option, that directory will be used instead.
              See the comments in the --partial-dir section for  a  discussion
              of how this ".~tmp~" dir will be excluded from the transfer, and
              what you can do if you want rsync to cleanup old  ".~tmp~"  dirs
              that  might  be  lying  around.   Conflicts  with  --inplace and
              --append.

              This option uses more memory on the receiving side (one bit  per
              file  transferred)  and  also requires enough free disk space on
              the receiving side to hold an additional copy of all the updated
              files.   Note  also  that you should not use an absolute path to
              --partial-dir unless (1) there is no chance of any of the  files
              in  the  transfer  having  the  same name (since all the updated
              files will be put into a single directory if the path  is  abso-
              lute)  and (2) there are no mount points in the hierarchy (since
              the delayed updates will fail if  they  can't  be  renamed  into
              place).

              See  also the "atomic-rsync" perl script in the "support" subdir
              for an update algorithm  that  is  even  more  atomic  (it  uses
              --link-dest and a parallel hierarchy of files).

       -m, --prune-empty-dirs
              This option tells the receiving rsync to get rid of empty direc-
              tories from the file-list,  including  nested  directories  that
              have no non-directory children.  This is useful for avoiding the
              creation of a bunch of  useless  directories  when  the  sending
              rsync  is  recursively  scanning  a  hierarchy  of  files  using
              include/exclude/filter rules.

              Note that the use of transfer  rules,  such  as  the  --min-size
              option,  does  not affect what goes into the file list, and thus
              does not leave directories empty, even if none of the files in a
              directory match the transfer rule.

              Because the file-list is actually being pruned, this option also
              affects what directories get deleted when a  delete  is  active.
              However,  keep  in  mind that excluded files and directories can
              prevent existing items from being deleted due to an exclude both
              hiding  source  files and protecting destination files.  See the
              perishable filter-rule option for how to avoid this.

              You can prevent the pruning of certain  empty  directories  from
              the file-list by using a global "protect" filter.  For instance,
              this option would ensure that the directory "emptydir" was  kept
              in the file-list:

              --filter 'protect emptydir/'

              Here's  an  example  that  copies all .pdf files in a hierarchy,
              only creating the necessary destination directories to hold  the
              .pdf  files, and ensures that any superfluous files and directo-
              ries in the destination are removed (note  the  hide  filter  of
              non-directories being used instead of an exclude):

              rsync -avm --del --include='*.pdf' -f 'hide,! */' src/ dest

              If  you didn't want to remove superfluous destination files, the
              more  time-honored  options  of  "--include='*/'  --exclude='*'"
              would  work  fine  in  place of the hide-filter (if that is more
              natural to you).

       --progress
              This  option  tells  rsync  to  print  information  showing  the
              progress  of  the transfer. This gives a bored user something to
              watch.  With a modern rsync  this  is  the  same  as  specifying
              --info=flist2,name,progress,  but any user-supplied settings for
              those  info  flags   takes   precedence   (e.g.   "--info=flist0
              --progress").

              While  rsync  is  transferring  a  regular  file,  it  updates a
              progress line that looks like this:

                    782448  63%  110.64kB/s    0:00:04

              In this example, the receiver has reconstructed 782448 bytes  or
              63% of the sender's file, which is being reconstructed at a rate
              of 110.64 kilobytes per second, and the transfer will finish  in
              4 seconds if the current rate is maintained until the end.

              These  statistics  can  be  misleading if rsync's delta-transfer
              algorithm is in use.  For example, if the sender's file consists
              of the basis file followed by additional data, the reported rate
              will probably drop dramatically when the receiver  gets  to  the
              literal data, and the transfer will probably take much longer to
              finish than the receiver  estimated  as  it  was  finishing  the
              matched part of the file.

              When  the  file  transfer  finishes, rsync replaces the progress
              line with a summary line that looks like this:

                    1,238,099 100%  146.38kB/s    0:00:08  (xfr#5, to-chk=169/396)

              In this example, the file was 1,238,099 bytes long in total, the
              average rate of transfer for the whole file was 146.38 kilobytes
              per second over the 8 seconds that it took to complete,  it  was
              the 5th transfer of a regular file during the current rsync ses-
              sion, and there are 169 more files for the receiver to check (to
              see  if  they  are  up-to-date  or not) remaining out of the 396
              total files in the file-list.

              In an incremental recursion scan, rsync  won't  know  the  total
              number  of  files  in the file-list until it reaches the ends of
              the scan, but since it starts to transfer files during the scan,
              it  will  display a line with the text "ir-chk" (for incremental
              recursion check) instead of "to-chk" until  the  point  that  it
              knows  the  full size of the list, at which point it will switch
              to using "to-chk".  Thus, seeing "ir-chk" lets you know that the
              total count of files in the file list is still going to increase
              (and each time it does, the count of files left to  check   will
              increase by the number of the files added to the list).

       -P     The  -P  option is equivalent to --partial --progress.  Its pur-
              pose is to make it much easier to specify these two options  for
              a long transfer that may be interrupted.

              There  is also a --info=progress2 option that outputs statistics
              based on the whole transfer, rather than individual files.   Use
              this  flag without outputting a filename (e.g. avoid -v or spec-
              ify --info=name0 if you want to see how the  transfer  is  doing
              without  scrolling  the  screen with a lot of names.  (You don't
              need  to  specify  the  --progress  option  in  order   to   use
              --info=progress2.)

       --password-file=FILE
              This  option  allows  you to provide a password for accessing an
              rsync daemon via a file or via standard input if FILE is -.  The
              file  should  contain  just  the password on the first line (all
              other lines are ignored).  Rsync will exit with an error if FILE
              is  world  readable  or  if  a  root-run  rsync  command finds a
              non-root-owned file.

              This option does not supply a password to a remote shell  trans-
              port  such  as  ssh; to learn how to do that, consult the remote
              shell's documentation.  When accessing an rsync daemon  using  a
              remote  shell  as  the  transport,  this  option only comes into
              effect after the remote shell finishes its authentication  (i.e.
              if  you  have  also  specified a password in the daemon's config
              file).

       --list-only
              This option will cause the source files to be listed instead  of
              transferred.   This  option  is  inferred  if  there is a single
              source arg and no destination specified, so its main  uses  are:
              (1)  to turn a copy command that includes a destination arg into
              a file-listing command, or (2) to be able to specify  more  than
              one source arg (note: be sure to include the destination).  Cau-
              tion: keep in mind  that  a  source  arg  with  a  wild-card  is
              expanded by the shell into multiple args, so it is never safe to
              try to list such an arg without using this option.  For example:

                  rsync -av --list-only foo* dest/

              Starting with rsync 3.1.0, the sizes output by  --list-only  are
              affected  by  the --human-readable option.  By default they will
              contain digit separators, but higher levels of readability  will
              output  the sizes with unit suffixes.  Note also that the column
              width for the size output has increased from 11 to 14 characters
              for all human-readable levels.  Use --no-h if you want just dig-
              its in the sizes, and the old column width of 11 characters.

              Compatibility note:  when requesting a remote listing  of  files
              from  an rsync that is version 2.6.3 or older, you may encounter
              an error if you  ask  for  a  non-recursive  listing.   This  is
              because  a  file  listing implies the --dirs option w/o --recur-
              sive, and older rsyncs don't have that option.   To  avoid  this
              problem,  either specify the --no-dirs option (if you don't need
              to expand a directory's  content),  or  turn  on  recursion  and
              exclude the content of subdirectories: -r --exclude='/*/*'.

       --bwlimit=RATE
              This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
              the data sent over the socket, specified in  units  per  second.
              The  RATE value can be suffixed with a string to indicate a size
              multiplier,   and   may   be   a    fractional    value    (e.g.
              "--bwlimit=1.5m").  If no suffix is specified, the value will be
              assumed to be in units of 1024 bytes (as if  "K"  or  "KiB"  had
              been  appended).  See the --max-size option for a description of
              all the available suffixes. A value of zero specifies no limit.

              For backward-compatibility  reasons,  the  rate  limit  will  be
              rounded  to  the  nearest KiB unit, so no rate smaller than 1024
              bytes per second is possible.

              Rsync writes data over the socket in  blocks,  and  this  option
              both  limits the size of the blocks that rsync writes, and tries
              to keep the average transfer rate at the requested limit.   Some
              "burstiness"  may be seen where rsync writes out a block of data
              and then sleeps to bring the average rate into compliance.

              Due to the internal buffering of data, the --progress option may
              not  be  an  accurate  reflection  on how fast the data is being
              sent.  This is because some files can show up as  being  rapidly
              sent  when the data is quickly buffered, while other can show up
              as very slow when the flushing  of  the  output  buffer  occurs.
              This may be fixed in a future version.

       --write-batch=FILE
              Record  a  file  that  can later be applied to another identical
              destination with --read-batch. See the "BATCH MODE" section  for
              details, and also the --only-write-batch option.

       --only-write-batch=FILE
              Works like --write-batch, except that no updates are made on the
              destination system when  creating  the  batch.   This  lets  you
              transport  the  changes to the destination system via some other
              means and then apply the changes via --read-batch.

              Note that you can feel free to write the batch directly to  some
              portable  media:  if this media fills to capacity before the end
              of the transfer, you can just apply that partial transfer to the
              destination  and repeat the whole process to get the rest of the
              changes (as long as you don't mind a partially updated  destina-
              tion system while the multi-update cycle is happening).

              Also note that you only save bandwidth when pushing changes to a
              remote system  because  this  allows  the  batched  data  to  be
              diverted  from  the sender into the batch file without having to
              flow over the wire to the receiver (when pulling, the sender  is
              remote, and thus can't write the batch).

       --read-batch=FILE
              Apply  all of the changes stored in FILE, a file previously gen-
              erated by --write-batch.  If FILE is -, the batch data  will  be
              read  from  standard  input.   See  the "BATCH MODE" section for
              details.

       --protocol=NUM
              Force an older protocol version to be used.  This is useful  for
              creating  a  batch file that is compatible with an older version
              of rsync.  For instance, if rsync 2.6.4 is being used  with  the
              --write-batch  option,  but  rsync 2.6.3 is what will be used to
              run the --read-batch option, you should use "--protocol=28" when
              creating  the  batch file to force the older protocol version to
              be used in the batch file (assuming you can't upgrade the  rsync
              on the reading system).

       --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC
              Rsync  can  convert  filenames between character sets using this
              option.  Using a CONVERT_SPEC of "." tells rsync to look up  the
              default  character-set via the locale setting.  Alternately, you
              can fully specify what conversion to do by giving a local and  a
              remote   charset   separated   by   a   comma   in   the   order
              --iconv=LOCAL,REMOTE, e.g.  --iconv=utf8,iso88591.   This  order
              ensures  that the option will stay the same whether you're push-
              ing  or  pulling  files.   Finally,  you  can   specify   either
              --no-iconv  or a CONVERT_SPEC of "-" to turn off any conversion.
              The default setting of this option  is  site-specific,  and  can
              also be affected via the RSYNC_ICONV environment variable.

              For  a  list of what charset names your local iconv library sup-
              ports, you can run "iconv --list".

              If you specify the --protect-args option (-s), rsync will trans-
              late  the  filenames  you  specify  on the command-line that are
              being sent to  the  remote  host.   See  also  the  --files-from
              option.

              Note  that  rsync  does not do any conversion of names in filter
              files (including include/exclude files).  It is  up  to  you  to
              ensure  that  you're specifying matching rules that can match on
              both sides of the transfer.  For instance, you can specify extra
              include/exclude  rules  if there are filename differences on the
              two sides that need to be accounted for.

              When you pass an --iconv option to an rsync daemon  that  allows
              it,  the daemon uses the charset specified in its "charset" con-
              figuration parameter regardless of the remote charset you  actu-
              ally  pass.   Thus,  you may feel free to specify just the local
              charset for a daemon transfer (e.g. --iconv=utf8).

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6  when  creating  sockets.   This
              only affects sockets that rsync has direct control over, such as
              the outgoing socket when directly contacting  an  rsync  daemon.
              See also these options in the --daemon mode section.

              If  rsync  was  complied  without  support  for IPv6, the --ipv6
              option will have no effect.  The --version output will tell  you
              if this is the case.

       --checksum-seed=NUM
              Set  the checksum seed to the integer NUM.  This 4 byte checksum
              seed is included in each block and MD4 file checksum calculation
              (the  more  modern  MD5  file  checksums  don't use a seed).  By
              default the  checksum  seed  is  generated  by  the  server  and
              defaults  to  the current time() .  This option is used to set a
              specific checksum seed, which is useful  for  applications  that
              want  repeatable  block checksums, or in the case where the user
              wants a more random checksum seed.   Setting  NUM  to  0  causes
              rsync to use the default of time() for checksum seed.

DAEMON OPTIONS
       The options allowed when starting an rsync daemon are as follows:

       --daemon
              This  tells rsync that it is to run as a daemon.  The daemon you
              start running may be accessed using an rsync  client  using  the
              host::module or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If  standard input is a socket then rsync will assume that it is
              being run via inetd, otherwise it will detach from  the  current
              terminal  and  become a background daemon.  The daemon will read
              the config file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by  a  client
              and respond to requests accordingly.  See the rsyncd.conf(5) man
              page for more details.

       --address
              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard address when run as a
              daemon  with  the  --daemon option.  The --address option allows
              you to specify a specific IP address (or hostname) to  bind  to.
              This  makes  virtual  hosting  possible  in conjunction with the
              --config option.  See also the "address" global  option  in  the
              rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --bwlimit=RATE
              This  option allows you to specify the maximum transfer rate for
              the data the daemon sends over the socket.  The client can still
              specify  a  smaller --bwlimit value, but no larger value will be
              allowed.  See the client version of this option (above) for some
              extra details.

       --config=FILE
              This  specifies an alternate config file than the default.  This
              is only relevant when --daemon is  specified.   The  default  is
              /etc/rsyncd.conf  unless  the  daemon  is  running over a remote
              shell program and the remote user is not the super-user; in that
              case  the default is rsyncd.conf in the current directory (typi-
              cally $HOME).

       -M, --dparam=OVERRIDE
              This option can be used to set a  daemon-config  parameter  when
              starting  up  rsync  in daemon mode.  It is equivalent to adding
              the parameter at the end of the global  settings  prior  to  the
              first module's definition.  The parameter names can be specified
              without spaces, if you so desire.  For instance:

                  rsync --daemon -M pidfile=/path/rsync.pid

       --no-detach
              When running as a daemon, this option  instructs  rsync  to  not
              detach  itself  and become a background process.  This option is
              required when running as a service on Cygwin, and  may  also  be
              useful when rsync is supervised by a program such as daemontools
              or AIX's System Resource Controller.  --no-detach is also recom-
              mended  when  rsync is run under a debugger.  This option has no
              effect if rsync is run from inetd or sshd.

       --port=PORT
              This specifies an alternate TCP port number for  the  daemon  to
              listen  on  rather than the default of 873.  See also the "port"
              global option in the rsyncd.conf manpage.

       --log-file=FILE
              This option tells the rsync daemon to  use  the  given  log-file
              name instead of using the "log file" setting in the config file.

       --log-file-format=FORMAT
              This  option  tells  the  rsync  daemon  to use the given FORMAT
              string instead of using the "log format" setting in  the  config
              file.   It  also enables "transfer logging" unless the string is
              empty, in which case transfer logging is turned off.

       --sockopts
              This overrides the socket options  setting  in  the  rsyncd.conf
              file and has the same syntax.

       -v, --verbose
              This  option increases the amount of information the daemon logs
              during its startup phase.  After the client connects,  the  dae-
              mon's verbosity level will be controlled by the options that the
              client used and the "max verbosity" setting in the module's con-
              fig section.

       -4, --ipv4 or -6, --ipv6
              Tells rsync to prefer IPv4/IPv6 when creating the incoming sock-
              ets that the rsync daemon will use to  listen  for  connections.
              One  of these options may be required in older versions of Linux
              to work around an IPv6 bug in the kernel (if you see an "address
              already  in  use" error when nothing else is using the port, try
              specifying --ipv6 or --ipv4 when starting the daemon).

              If rsync was complied  without  support  for  IPv6,  the  --ipv6
              option  will have no effect.  The --version output will tell you
              if this is the case.

       -h, --help
              When specified after --daemon, print a short help page  describ-
              ing the options available for starting an rsync daemon.

FILTER RULES
       The  filter rules allow for flexible selection of which files to trans-
       fer (include) and which files to  skip  (exclude).   The  rules  either
       directly  specify  include/exclude  patterns  or  they specify a way to
       acquire more include/exclude patterns (e.g. to read them from a file).

       As the list of files/directories to transfer  is  built,  rsync  checks
       each  name  to  be transferred against the list of include/exclude pat-
       terns in turn, and the first matching pattern is acted on:  if it is an
       exclude pattern, then that file is skipped; if it is an include pattern
       then that filename is not skipped; if no  matching  pattern  is  found,
       then the filename is not skipped.

       Rsync  builds  an ordered list of filter rules as specified on the com-
       mand-line.  Filter rules have the following syntax:

              RULE [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]
              RULE,MODIFIERS [PATTERN_OR_FILENAME]

       You have your choice of using either  short  or  long  RULE  names,  as
       described below.  If you use a short-named rule, the ',' separating the
       RULE from the MODIFIERS is optional.  The PATTERN or FILENAME that fol-
       lows  (when present) must come after either a single space or an under-
       score (_).  Here are the available rule prefixes:

              exclude, - specifies an exclude pattern.
              include, + specifies an include pattern.
              merge, . specifies a merge-file to read for more rules.
              dir-merge, : specifies a per-directory merge-file.
              hide, H specifies a pattern for hiding files from the transfer.
              show, S files that match the pattern are not hidden.
              protect, P specifies a pattern for protecting files  from  dele-
              tion.
              risk, R files that match the pattern are not protected.
              clear, ! clears the current include/exclude list (takes no arg)

       When  rules are being read from a file, empty lines are ignored, as are
       comment lines that start with a "#".

       Note that the --include/--exclude command-line options do not allow the
       full  range  of  rule parsing as described above -- they only allow the
       specification of include/exclude patterns plus a "!" token to clear the
       list  (and the normal comment parsing when rules are read from a file).
       If a pattern does not begin with "- " (dash,  space)  or  "+  "  (plus,
       space),  then  the  rule will be interpreted as if "+ " (for an include
       option) or "- " (for an exclude option) were prefixed to the string.  A
       --filter  option, on the other hand, must always contain either a short
       or long rule name at the start of the rule.

       Note also that the --filter, --include, and --exclude options take  one
       rule/pattern  each. To add multiple ones, you can repeat the options on
       the command-line, use the merge-file syntax of the --filter option,  or
       the --include-from/--exclude-from options.

INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERN RULES
       You can include and exclude files by specifying patterns using the "+",
       "-", etc. filter rules (as  introduced  in  the  FILTER  RULES  section
       above).   The  include/exclude  rules  each  specify  a pattern that is
       matched against the names of the files that  are  going  to  be  trans-
       ferred.  These patterns can take several forms:

       o      if the pattern starts with a / then it is anchored to a particu-
              lar spot in the hierarchy of  files,  otherwise  it  is  matched
              against the end of the pathname.  This is similar to a leading ^
              in regular expressions.  Thus "/foo" would match a name of "foo"
              at  either  the "root of the transfer" (for a global rule) or in
              the merge-file's  directory  (for  a  per-directory  rule).   An
              unqualified  "foo"  would  match a name of "foo" anywhere in the
              tree because the algorithm is applied recursively from  the  top
              down;  it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at being
              the end of the filename.  Even the  unanchored  "sub/foo"  would
              match  at  any  point  in  the hierarchy where a "foo" was found
              within a directory named "sub".  See the  section  on  ANCHORING
              INCLUDE/EXCLUDE PATTERNS for a full discussion of how to specify
              a pattern that matches at the root of the transfer.

       o      if the pattern ends with a / then it will only  match  a  direc-
              tory, not a regular file, symlink, or device.

       o      rsync  chooses  between doing a simple string match and wildcard
              matching by checking if the pattern contains one of these  three
              wildcard characters: '*', '?', and '[' .

       o      a '*' matches any path component, but it stops at slashes.

       o      use '**' to match anything, including slashes.

       o      a '?' matches any character except a slash (/).

       o      a   '['   introduces   a  character  class,  such  as  [a-z]  or
              [[:alpha:]].

       o      in a wildcard pattern, a backslash can be used to escape a wild-
              card  character,  but  it is matched literally when no wildcards
              are present.  This means that there is an extra level  of  back-
              slash  removal  when a pattern contains wildcard characters com-
              pared to a pattern that has none.  e.g. if you add a wildcard to
              "foo\bar"  (which  matches  the backslash) you would need to use
              "foo\\bar*" to avoid the "\b" becoming just "b".

       o      if the pattern contains a / (not counting a  trailing  /)  or  a
              "**",  then  it  is matched against the full pathname, including
              any leading directories. If the pattern doesn't contain a / or a
              "**", then it is matched only against the final component of the
              filename.  (Remember that the algorithm is  applied  recursively
              so  "full  filename"  can actually be any portion of a path from
              the starting directory on down.)

       o      a trailing "dir_name/***" will match both the directory  (as  if
              "dir_name/"  had been specified) and everything in the directory
              (as if "dir_name/**" had been  specified).   This  behavior  was
              added in version 2.6.7.

       Note  that, when using the --recursive (-r) option (which is implied by
       -a), every subcomponent of every path is visited from the top down,  so
       include/exclude patterns get applied recursively to each subcomponent's
       full name (e.g. to include "/foo/bar/baz" the subcomponents "/foo"  and
       "/foo/bar"  must  not  be  excluded).   The  exclude  patterns actually
       short-circuit the directory traversal stage when rsync finds the  files
       to  send.   If a pattern excludes a particular parent directory, it can
       render a deeper include  pattern  ineffectual  because  rsync  did  not
       descend  through  that excluded section of the hierarchy.  This is par-
       ticularly important when using a trailing '*' rule.  For instance, this
       won't work:

              + /some/path/this-file-will-not-be-found
              + /file-is-included
              - *

       This  fails  because the parent directory "some" is excluded by the '*'
       rule, so rsync  never  visits  any  of  the  files  in  the  "some"  or
       "some/path" directories.  One solution is to ask for all directories in
       the hierarchy to be included by using a single rule:  "+  */"  (put  it
       somewhere   before   the   "-   *"   rule),   and   perhaps   use   the
       --prune-empty-dirs option.  Another solution is to add specific include
       rules  for  all the parent dirs that need to be visited.  For instance,
       this set of rules works fine:

              + /some/
              + /some/path/
              + /some/path/this-file-is-found
              + /file-also-included
              - *

       Here are some examples of exclude/include matching:

       o      "- *.o" would exclude all names matching *.o

       o      "- /foo" would exclude a file (or directory) named  foo  in  the
              transfer-root directory

       o      "- foo/" would exclude any directory named foo

       o      "-  /foo/*/bar" would exclude any file named bar which is at two
              levels below a directory named foo in the  transfer-root  direc-
              tory

       o      "-  /foo/**/bar"  would  exclude  any file named bar two or more
              levels below a directory named foo in the  transfer-root  direc-
              tory

       o      The  combination of "+ */", "+ *.c", and "- *" would include all
              directories and C source files but nothing else  (see  also  the
              --prune-empty-dirs option)

       o      The  combination  of  "+  foo/",  "+ foo/bar.c", and "- *" would
              include only the foo directory and foo/bar.c (the foo  directory
              must be explicitly included or it would be excluded by the "*")

       The following modifiers are accepted after a "+" or "-":

       o      A  /  specifies  that the include/exclude rule should be matched
              against the absolute pathname of the current item.  For example,
              "-/  /etc/passwd"  would  exclude  the  passwd file any time the
              transfer was sending files from the "/etc"  directory,  and  "-/
              subdir/foo" would always exclude "foo" when it is in a dir named
              "subdir", even if "foo" is at the root of the current transfer.

       o      A ! specifies that the include/exclude should take effect if the
              pattern fails to match.  For instance, "-! */" would exclude all
              non-directories.

       o      A C is used to indicate that all the  global  CVS-exclude  rules
              should  be  inserted  as  excludes in place of the "-C".  No arg
              should follow.

       o      An s is used to indicate that the rule applies  to  the  sending
              side.   When  a rule affects the sending side, it prevents files
              from being transferred.  The default is for  a  rule  to  affect
              both sides unless --delete-excluded was specified, in which case
              default rules become sender-side only.  See also  the  hide  (H)
              and  show (S) rules, which are an alternate way to specify send-
              ing-side includes/excludes.

       o      An r is used to indicate that the rule applies to the  receiving
              side.  When a rule affects the receiving side, it prevents files
              from being deleted.  See the s modifier for more info.  See also
              the  protect  (P) and risk (R) rules, which are an alternate way
              to specify receiver-side includes/excludes.

       o      A p indicates that a rule is  perishable,  meaning  that  it  is
              ignored  in  directories  that are being deleted.  For instance,
              the -C option's default rules that exclude things like "CVS" and
              "*.o" are marked as perishable, and will not prevent a directory
              that was removed on the source from being deleted on the  desti-
              nation.

MERGE-FILE FILTER RULES
       You can merge whole files into your filter rules by specifying either a
       merge (.) or a dir-merge (:) filter rule (as introduced in  the  FILTER
       RULES section above).

       There  are  two  kinds  of  merged  files  -- single-instance ('.') and
       per-directory (':').  A single-instance merge file is  read  one  time,
       and its rules are incorporated into the filter list in the place of the
       "." rule.  For per-directory merge files, rsync will scan every  direc-
       tory  that  it  traverses for the named file, merging its contents when
       the file exists into  the  current  list  of  inherited  rules.   These
       per-directory rule files must be created on the sending side because it
       is the sending side that is being scanned for the  available  files  to
       transfer.   These  rule  files  may  also need to be transferred to the
       receiving side if you want them to affect what files don't get  deleted
       (see PER-DIRECTORY RULES AND DELETE below).

       Some examples:

              merge /etc/rsync/default.rules
              . /etc/rsync/default.rules
              dir-merge .per-dir-filter
              dir-merge,n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes
              :n- .non-inherited-per-dir-excludes

       The following modifiers are accepted after a merge or dir-merge rule:

       o      A  - specifies that the file should consist of only exclude pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A + specifies that the file should consist of only include  pat-
              terns, with no other rule-parsing except for in-file comments.

       o      A  C  is  a  way  to  specify  that the file should be read in a
              CVS-compatible manner.  This turns on 'n',  'w',  and  '-',  but
              also  allows the list-clearing token (!) to be specified.  If no
              filename is provided, ".cvsignore" is assumed.

       o      A e will exclude the merge-file name  from  the  transfer;  e.g.
              "dir-merge,e .rules" is like "dir-merge .rules" and "- .rules".

       o      An  n  specifies that the rules are not inherited by subdirecto-
              ries.

       o      A w specifies  that  the  rules  are  word-split  on  whitespace
              instead  of the normal line-splitting.  This also turns off com-
              ments.  Note: the space that separates the prefix from the  rule
              is  treated  specially,  so "- foo + bar" is parsed as two rules
              (assuming that prefix-parsing wasn't also disabled).

       o      You may also specify any of the modifiers for  the  "+"  or  "-"
              rules  (above)  in order to have the rules that are read in from
              the file default to having that modifier set (except for  the  !
              modifier,  which  would not be useful).  For instance, "merge,-/
              .excl" would  treat  the  contents  of  .excl  as  absolute-path
              excludes,  while  "dir-merge,s  .filt" and ":sC" would each make
              all their per-directory rules apply only on  the  sending  side.
              If the merge rule specifies sides to affect (via the s or r mod-
              ifier or both), then the rules in  the  file  must  not  specify
              sides (via a modifier or a rule prefix such as hide).

       Per-directory  rules  are inherited in all subdirectories of the direc-
       tory where the merge-file was found unless the 'n' modifier  was  used.
       Each  subdirectory's  rules are prefixed to the inherited per-directory
       rules from its parents, which gives the newest rules a higher  priority
       than  the  inherited  rules.   The  entire  set  of dir-merge rules are
       grouped together in the spot where the merge-file was specified, so  it
       is  possible  to override dir-merge rules via a rule that got specified
       earlier in the list of global rules.  When the list-clearing rule ("!")
       is  read  from a per-directory file, it only clears the inherited rules
       for the current merge file.

       Another way to prevent a single rule from a dir-merge file  from  being
       inherited  is  to  anchor it with a leading slash.  Anchored rules in a
       per-directory merge-file are relative to the merge-file's directory, so
       a pattern "/foo" would only match the file "foo" in the directory where
       the dir-merge filter file was found.

       Here's an example filter  file  which  you'd  specify  via  --filter=".
       file":

              merge /home/user/.global-filter
              - *.gz
              dir-merge .rules
              + *.[ch]
              - *.o

       This  will  merge the contents of the /home/user/.global-filter file at
       the start of the list and also  turns  the  ".rules"  filename  into  a
       per-directory filter file.  All rules read in prior to the start of the
       directory scan follow the global anchoring rules (i.e. a leading  slash
       matches at the root of the transfer).

       If a per-directory merge-file is specified with a path that is a parent
       directory of the first transfer directory, rsync will scan all the par-
       ent  dirs  from  that  starting point to the transfer directory for the
       indicated per-directory file.  For instance, here is  a  common  filter
       (see -F):

              --filter=': /.rsync-filter'

       That  rule tells rsync to scan for the file .rsync-filter in all direc-
       tories from the root down through the parent directory of the  transfer
       prior  to  the  start  of  the normal directory scan of the file in the
       directories that are sent as a part of the  transfer.   (Note:  for  an
       rsync daemon, the root is always the same as the module's "path".)

       Some examples of this pre-scanning for per-directory files:

              rsync -avF /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': ../../.rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir
              rsync -av --filter=': .rsync-filter' /src/path/ /dest/dir

       The  first  two commands above will look for ".rsync-filter" in "/" and
       "/src"  before  the  normal  scan  begins  looking  for  the  file   in
       "/src/path"  and  its subdirectories.  The last command avoids the par-
       ent-dir scan and only looks  for  the  ".rsync-filter"  files  in  each
       directory that is a part of the transfer.

       If you want to include the contents of a ".cvsignore" in your patterns,
       you should use the rule ":C", which creates a dir-merge of the  .cvsig-
       nore  file, but parsed in a CVS-compatible manner.  You can use this to
       affect  where  the  --cvs-exclude  (-C)  option's  inclusion   of   the
       per-directory  .cvsignore  file  gets placed into your rules by putting
       the ":C" wherever you like in your filter rules.  Without  this,  rsync
       would  add the dir-merge rule for the .cvsignore file at the end of all
       your other rules (giving it a lower  priority  than  your  command-line
       rules).  For example:

              cat < out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If everything is working correctly  then  out.dat
       should  be  a zero length file. If you are getting the above error from
       rsync then you will probably find that out.dat contains  some  text  or
       data.  Look  at  the contents and try to work out what is producing it.
       The most common cause is incorrectly configured shell  startup  scripts
       (such  as  .cshrc  or  .profile)  that  contain  output  statements for
       non-interactive logins.

       If you are having trouble debugging filter patterns, then try  specify-
       ing  the  -vv  option.   At this level of verbosity rsync will show why
       each individual file is included or excluded.

EXIT VALUES
       0      Success

       1      Syntax or usage error

       2      Protocol incompatibility

       3      Errors selecting input/output files, dirs

       4      Requested action not supported: an attempt was made  to  manipu-
              late  64-bit files on a platform that cannot support them; or an
              option was specified that is supported by the client and not  by
              the server.

       5      Error starting client-server protocol

       6      Daemon unable to append to log-file

       10     Error in socket I/O

       11     Error in file I/O

       12     Error in rsync protocol data stream

       13     Errors with program diagnostics

       14     Error in IPC code

       20     Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

       21     Some error returned by waitpid()

       22     Error allocating core memory buffers

       23     Partial transfer due to error

       24     Partial transfer due to vanished source files

       25     The --max-delete limit stopped deletions

       30     Timeout in data send/receive

       35     Timeout waiting for daemon connection

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       CVSIGNORE
              The  CVSIGNORE  environment variable supplements any ignore pat-
              terns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-exclude option for more
              details.

       RSYNC_ICONV
              Specify  a  default --iconv setting using this environment vari-
              able. (First supported in 3.0.0.)

       RSYNC_PROTECT_ARGS
              Specify a non-zero numeric value if you want the  --protect-args
              option  to  be  enabled by default, or a zero value to make sure
              that it is disabled by default. (First supported in 3.1.0.)

       RSYNC_RSH
              The RSYNC_RSH environment variable allows you  to  override  the
              default  shell  used  as  the transport for rsync.  Command line
              options are permitted after the command name, just as in the  -e
              option.

       RSYNC_PROXY
              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you to redirect your
              rsync client to use a web proxy when connecting to a rsync  dae-
              mon. You should set RSYNC_PROXY to a hostname:port pair.

       RSYNC_PASSWORD
              Setting  RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the required password allows you to
              run authenticated rsync connections to an rsync  daemon  without
              user  intervention. Note that this does not supply a password to
              a remote shell transport such as ssh; to learn how to  do  that,
              consult the remote shell's documentation.

       USER or LOGNAME
              The  USER or LOGNAME environment variables are used to determine
              the default username sent to an rsync  daemon.   If  neither  is
              set, the username defaults to "nobody".

       HOME   The HOME environment variable is used to find the user's default
              .cvsignore file.

FILES
       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf

SEE ALSO
       rsyncd.conf(5)

BUGS
       times are transferred as *nix time_t values

       When transferring to  FAT  filesystems  rsync  may  re-sync  unmodified
       files.  See the comments on the --modify-window option.

       file  permissions,  devices,  etc.  are transferred as native numerical
       values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please report bugs! See the web site at http://rsync.samba.org/

VERSION
       This man page is current for version 3.1.1 of rsync.

INTERNAL OPTIONS
       The options --server and --sender are used  internally  by  rsync,  and
       should  never  be  typed  by  a  user under normal circumstances.  Some
       awareness of these options may be needed in certain scenarios, such  as
       when  setting  up  a  login  that  can  only run an rsync command.  For
       instance, the support directory of the rsync distribution has an  exam-
       ple  script named rrsync (for restricted rsync) that can be used with a
       restricted ssh login.

CREDITS
       rsync is distributed under the GNU General  Public  License.   See  the
       file COPYING for details.

       A  WEB site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The site includes
       an FAQ-O-Matic which may cover  questions  unanswered  by  this  manual
       page.

       The primary ftp site for rsync is ftp://rsync.samba.org/pub/rsync.

       We  would  be  delighted  to  hear  from  you if you like this program.
       Please contact the mailing-list at rsync@lists.samba.org.

       This program uses the excellent zlib  compression  library  written  by
       Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

THANKS
       Special  thanks  go  out  to: John Van Essen, Matt McCutchen, Wesley W.
       Terpstra, David Dykstra, Jos Backus, Sebastian  Krahmer,  Martin  Pool,
       and our gone-but-not-forgotten compadre, J.W. Schultz.

       Thanks also to Richard Brent, Brendan Mackay, Bill Waite, Stephen Roth-
       well and David Bell.  I've probably missed some people, my apologies if
       I have.

AUTHOR
       rsync  was  originally  written  by Andrew Tridgell and Paul Mackerras.
       Many people have later contributed to it.  It is  currently  maintained
       by Wayne Davison.

       Mailing   lists   for   support   and   development  are  available  at
       http://lists.samba.org

                                  22 Jun 2014                         rsync(1)



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