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dpkg(1)                           dpkg suite                           dpkg(1)

NAME
       dpkg - package manager for Debian

SYNOPSIS
       dpkg [option...] action

WARNING
       This  manual is intended for users wishing to understand dpkg's command
       line options and package states in more detail than  that  provided  by
       dpkg --help.

       It  should not be used by package maintainers wishing to understand how
       dpkg will install their packages. The descriptions of  what  dpkg  does
       when installing and removing packages are particularly inadequate.

DESCRIPTION
       dpkg  is  a  tool to install, build, remove and manage Debian packages.
       The primary and more user-friendly front-end for dpkg  is  aptitude(1).
       dpkg  itself  is controlled entirely via command line parameters, which
       consist of exactly one action and zero or  more  options.  The  action-
       parameter tells dpkg what to do and options control the behavior of the
       action in some way.

       dpkg can also be used as a front-end to dpkg-deb(1) and  dpkg-query(1).
       The list of supported actions can be found later on in the ACTIONS sec-
       tion. If any such action is encountered  dpkg  just  runs  dpkg-deb  or
       dpkg-query with the parameters given to it, but no specific options are
       currently passed to them, to use any such option the back-ends need  to
       be called directly.

INFORMATION ABOUT PACKAGES
       dpkg  maintains  some  usable information about available packages. The
       information is divided in three classes: states, selection  states  and
       flags. These values are intended to be changed mainly with dselect.

   Package states
       not-installed
              The package is not installed on your system.

       config-files
              Only the configuration files of the package exist on the system.

       half-installed
              The  installation  of the package has been started, but not com-
              pleted for some reason.

       unpacked
              The package is unpacked, but not configured.

       half-configured
              The package is unpacked and configuration has been started,  but
              not yet completed for some reason.

       triggers-awaited
              The package awaits trigger processing by another package.

       triggers-pending
              The package has been triggered.

       installed
              The package is correctly unpacked and configured.

   Package selection states
       install
              The package is selected for installation.

       hold   A  package  marked  to be on hold is not handled by dpkg, unless
              forced to do that with option --force-hold.

       deinstall
              The package is selected for  deinstallation  (i.e.  we  want  to
              remove all files, except configuration files).

       purge  The  package  is  selected  to be purged (i.e. we want to remove
              everything from system directories, even configuration files).

   Package flags
       reinst-required
              A package marked reinst-required is broken  and  requires  rein-
              stallation. These packages cannot be removed, unless forced with
              option --force-remove-reinstreq.

ACTIONS
       -i, --install package-file...
              Install the package. If --recursive or -R option  is  specified,
              package-file must refer to a directory instead.

              Installation consists of the following steps:

              1. Extract the control files of the new package.

              2.  If  another version of the same package was installed before
              the new installation, execute prerm script of the old package.

              3. Run preinst script, if provided by the package.

              4. Unpack the new files, and at the same time back  up  the  old
              files, so that if something goes wrong, they can be restored.

              5.  If  another version of the same package was installed before
              the new installation, execute the postrm script of the old pack-
              age.  Note that this script is executed after the preinst script
              of the new package, because new files are written  at  the  same
              time old files are removed.

              6.  Configure the package. See --configure for detailed informa-
              tion about how this is done.

       --unpack package-file...
              Unpack the package, but don't configure it. If --recursive or -R
              option  is  specified,  package-file  must  refer to a directory
              instead.

       --configure package...|-a|--pending
              Configure a package which has been unpacked but not yet  config-
              ured.   If  -a  or  --pending  is  given instead of package, all
              unpacked but unconfigured packages are configured.

              To reconfigure a package which has already been configured,  try
              the dpkg-reconfigure(8) command instead.

              Configuring consists of the following steps:

              1.  Unpack  the  conffiles, and at the same time back up the old
              conffiles, so that they can be restored if something goes wrong.

              2. Run postinst script, if provided by the package.

       --triggers-only package...|-a|--pending
              Processes only triggers (since dpkg 1.14.17).  All pending trig-
              gers  will  be  processed.   If  package names are supplied only
              those packages' triggers will be processed,  exactly  once  each
              where  necessary.  Use  of this option may leave packages in the
              improper triggers-awaited and triggers-pending states. This  can
              be fixed later by running: dpkg --configure --pending.

       -r, --remove package...|-a|--pending
              Remove  an  installed  package.  This  removes everything except
              conffiles, which may avoid having to reconfigure the package  if
              it  is reinstalled later (conffiles are configuration files that
              are listed in the DEBIAN/conffiles  control  file).   If  -a  or
              --pending  is given instead of a package name, then all packages
              unpacked, but marked to be removed in file /var/lib/dpkg/status,
              are removed.

              Removing of a package consists of the following steps:

              1. Run prerm script

              2. Remove the installed files

              3. Run postrm script

       -P, --purge package...|-a|--pending
              Purge  an  installed  or  already  removed package. This removes
              everything, including conffiles.  If -a or  --pending  is  given
              instead  of  a  package  name,  then  all  packages  unpacked or
              removed, but marked to be purged in  file  /var/lib/dpkg/status,
              are purged.

              Note:  some configuration files might be unknown to dpkg because
              they are created and handled separately through  the  configura-
              tion  scripts.  In  that case, dpkg won't remove them by itself,
              but the package's postrm script (which is called by  dpkg),  has
              to take care of their removal during purge. Of course, this only
              applies to files in system directories, not configuration  files
              written to individual users' home directories.

              Purging of a package consists of the following steps:

              1.  Remove the package, if not already removed. See --remove for
              detailed information about how this is done.

              2. Run postrm script.

       -V, --verify [package-name...]
              Verifies the integrity of package-name or all packages if  omit-
              ted,  by  comparing  information  from  the files installed by a
              package with the files metadata information stored in  the  dpkg
              database  (since dpkg 1.17.2).  The origin of the files metadata
              information in the database is the binary  packages  themselves.
              That  metadata  gets collected at package unpack time during the
              installation process.

              Currently the only functional check performed is an md5sum veri-
              fication  of  the  file contents against the stored value in the
              files database.  It will only get checked if the  database  con-
              tains  the file md5sum. To check for any missing metadata in the
              database, the --audit command can be used.

              The output format is selectable with the --verify-format option,
              which  by  default uses the rpm format, but that might change in
              the future, and as such, programs parsing  this  command  output
              should be explicit about the format they expect.

       --update-avail [Packages-file]
       --merge-avail [Packages-file]
              Update  dpkg's  and  dselect's idea of which packages are avail-
              able. With action --merge-avail,  old  information  is  combined
              with information from Packages-file. With action --update-avail,
              old information is replaced with the information  in  the  Pack-
              ages-file.  The  Packages-file distributed with Debian is simply
              named Packages. If the  Packages-file  argument  is  missing  or
              named  -  then  it  will be read from standard input (since dpkg
              1.17.7).  dpkg  keeps  its  record  of  available  packages   in
              /var/lib/dpkg/available.

              A  simpler one-shot command to retrieve and update the available
              file is dselect update. Note that this file is mostly useless if
              you don't use dselect but an APT-based frontend: APT has its own
              system to keep track of available packages.

       -A, --record-avail package-file...
              Update dpkg and dselect's idea of which packages  are  available
              with  information  from the package package-file. If --recursive
              or -R option is specified, package-file must refer to  a  direc-
              tory instead.

       --forget-old-unavail
              Now obsolete and a no-op as dpkg will automatically forget unin-
              stalled unavailable packages (since dpkg 1.15.4).

       --clear-avail
              Erase the existing information about what  packages  are  avail-
              able.

       -C, --audit [package-name...]
              Performs database sanity and consistency checks for package-name
              or all packages  if  omitted  (per  package  checks  since  dpkg
              1.17.10).   For  example,  searches  for packages that have been
              installed only partially on your system or  that  have  missing,
              wrong  or obsolete control data or files. dpkg will suggest what
              to do with them to get them fixed.

       --get-selections [package-name-pattern...]
              Get list of package selections, and write it to stdout.  Without
              a  pattern,  non-installed  packages (i.e. those which have been
              previously purged) will not be shown.

       --set-selections
              Set package selections using file read  from  stdin.  This  file
              should  be  in the format "package state", where state is one of
              install, hold, deinstall or purge. Blank lines and comment lines
              beginning with '#' are also permitted.

              The available file needs to be up-to-date for this command to be
              useful, otherwise unknown packages will be ignored with a  warn-
              ing.  See the --update-avail and --merge-avail commands for more
              information.

       --clear-selections
              Set the requested state of every non-essential package to  dein-
              stall (since dpkg 1.13.18).  This is intended to be used immedi-
              ately before --set-selections, to deinstall any packages not  in
              list given to --set-selections.

       --yet-to-unpack
              Searches  for  packages selected for installation, but which for
              some reason still haven't been installed.

       --predep-package
              Print a single package which is the target of one or more  rele-
              vant  pre-dependencies  and has itself no unsatisfied pre-depen-
              dencies.

              If such a package is present,  output  it  as  a  Packages  file
              entry, which can be massaged as appropriate.

              Returns  0 when a package is printed, 1 when no suitable package
              is available and 2 on error.

       --add-architecture architecture
              Add architecture to the list of architectures for which packages
              can  be installed without using --force-architecture (since dpkg
              1.16.2).  The architecture dpkg is built for (i.e. the output of
              --print-architecture) is always part of that list.

       --remove-architecture architecture
              Remove  architecture  from  the  list of architectures for which
              packages can be  installed  without  using  --force-architecture
              (since  dpkg 1.16.2). If the architecture is currently in use in
              the database then the  operation  will  be  refused,  except  if
              --force-architecture  is  specified.  The  architecture  dpkg is
              built for (i.e. the output of --print-architecture) can never be
              removed from that list.

       --print-architecture
              Print  architecture  of  packages  dpkg  installs  (for example,
              "i386").

       --print-foreign-architectures
              Print a newline-separated list of the extra  architectures  dpkg
              is  configured to allow packages to be installed for (since dpkg
              1.16.2).

       --assert-feature
              Asserts that dpkg supports the requested feature.  Returns 0  if
              the  feature  is  fully supported, 1 if the feature is known but
              dpkg cannot provide support for it yet, and 2 if the feature  is
              unknown.  The current list of assertable features is:

              support-predepends
                     Supports the Pre-Depends field (since dpkg 1.1.0).

              working-epoch
                     Supports epochs in version strings (since dpkg 1.4.0.7).

              long-filenames
                     Supports  long  filenames  in deb(5) archives (since dpkg
                     1.4.1.17).

              multi-conrep
                     Supports multiple  Conflicts  and  Replaces  (since  dpkg
                     1.4.1.19).

              multi-arch
                     Supports  multi-arch  fields  and  semantics  (since dpkg
                     1.16.2).

              versioned-provides
                     Supports versioned Provides (since dpkg 1.17.11).

       --compare-versions ver1 op ver2
              Compare version numbers, where op is  a  binary  operator.  dpkg
              returns success (zero result) if the specified condition is sat-
              isfied, and failure (nonzero result) otherwise.  There  are  two
              groups  of  operators,  which  differ in how they treat an empty
              ver1 or ver2. These treat an empty version as earlier  than  any
              version:  lt  le  eq  ne  ge gt. These treat an empty version as
              later than any version: lt-nl le-nl ge-nl gt-nl. These are  pro-
              vided only for compatibility with control file syntax: < << <= =
              >= >> >. The < and > operators are obsolete and  should  not  be
              used, due to confusing semantics. To illustrate: 0.1 < 0.1 eval-
              uates to true.

       -?, --help
              Display a brief help message.

       --force-help
              Give help about the --force-thing options.

       -Dh, --debug=help
              Give help about debugging options.

       --version
              Display dpkg version information.

       dpkg-deb actions
              See  dpkg-deb(1)  for  more  information  about  the   following
              actions.

              -b, --build directory [archive|directory]
                  Build a deb package.
              -c, --contents archive
                  List contents of a deb package.
              -e, --control archive [directory]
                  Extract control-information from a package.
              -x, --extract archive directory
                  Extract the files contained by package.
              -X, --vextract archive directory
                  Extract and display the filenames contained by a
                  package.
              -f, --field  archive [control-field...]
                  Display control field(s) of a package.
              --ctrl-tarfile archive
                  Output the control tar-file contained in a Debian package.
              --fsys-tarfile archive
                  Output the filesystem tar-file contained by a Debian package.
              -I, --info archive [control-file...]
                  Show information about a package.

       dpkg-query actions
              See  dpkg-query(1)  for  more  information  about  the following
              actions.

              -l, --list package-name-pattern...
                  List packages matching given pattern.
              -s, --status package-name...
                  Report status of specified package.
              -L, --listfiles package-name...
                  List files installed to your system from package-name.
              -S, --search filename-search-pattern...
                  Search for a filename from installed packages.
              -p, --print-avail package-name...
                  Display details about package-name, as found in
                  /var/lib/dpkg/available. Users of APT-based frontends
                  should use apt-cache show package-name instead.

OPTIONS
       All options can be specified both on the command line and in  the  dpkg
       configuration  file  /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg  or  fragment files (with names
       matching this shell  pattern  '[0-9a-zA-Z_-]*')  on  the  configuration
       directory /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg.d/. Each line in the configuration file is
       either an option (exactly the same as the command line option but with-
       out leading hyphens) or a comment (if it starts with a #).

       --abort-after=number
              Change after how many errors dpkg will abort. The default is 50.

       -B, --auto-deconfigure
              When  a  package is removed, there is a possibility that another
              installed package depended on the  removed  package.  Specifying
              this  option will cause automatic deconfiguration of the package
              which depended on the removed package.

       -Doctal, --debug=octal
              Switch debugging on. octal is formed by  bitwise-orring  desired
              values  together from the list below (note that these values may
              change in future releases). -Dh or  --debug=help  display  these
              debugging values.

                  Number   Description
                       1   Generally helpful progress information
                       2   Invocation and status of maintainer scripts
                      10   Output for each file processed
                     100   Lots of output for each file processed
                      20   Output for each configuration file
                     200   Lots of output for each configuration file
                      40   Dependencies and conflicts
                     400   Lots of dependencies/conflicts output
                   10000   Trigger activation and processing
                   20000   Lots of output regarding triggers
                   40000   Silly amounts of output regarding triggers
                    1000   Lots of drivel about e.g. the dpkg/info dir
                    2000   Insane amounts of drivel

       --force-things
       --no-force-things, --refuse-things
              Force  or refuse (no-force and refuse mean the same thing) to do
              some things. things is a comma separated list of  things  speci-
              fied  below.  --force-help  displays  a message describing them.
              Things marked with (*) are forced by default.

              Warning: These options are mostly intended to be used by experts
              only.  Using  them without fully understanding their effects may
              break your whole system.

              all: Turns on (or off) all force options.

              downgrade(*): Install a package, even if newer version of it  is
              already installed.

              Warning:  At present dpkg does not do any dependency checking on
              downgrades and therefore will not  warn  you  if  the  downgrade
              breaks the dependency of some other package. This can have seri-
              ous side effects, downgrading essential  system  components  can
              even make your whole system unusable. Use with care.

              configure-any:  Configure  also  any  unpacked  but unconfigured
              packages on which the current package depends.

              hold: Process packages even when marked "hold".

              remove-reinstreq: Remove a package,  even  if  it's  broken  and
              marked  to  require reinstallation. This may, for example, cause
              parts of the package to remain on the system, which will then be
              forgotten by dpkg.

              remove-essential:  Remove,  even  if  the  package is considered
              essential. Essential packages contain  mostly  very  basic  Unix
              commands.  Removing  them  might  cause the whole system to stop
              working, so use with caution.

              depends: Turn all dependency problems into warnings.

              depends-version: Don't care about versions when checking  depen-
              dencies.

              breaks: Install, even if this would break another package (since
              dpkg 1.14.6).

              conflicts: Install, even if it conflicts with  another  package.
              This is dangerous, for it will usually cause overwriting of some
              files.

              confmiss: If a conffile is missing and the version in the  pack-
              age  did  change,  always  install  the missing conffile without
              prompting. This is dangerous, since it means  not  preserving  a
              change (removing) made to the file.

              confnew:  If a conffile has been modified and the version in the
              package did change,  always  install  the  new  version  without
              prompting,  unless  the  --force-confdef  is  also specified, in
              which case the default action is preferred.

              confold: If a conffile has been modified and the version in  the
              package  did change, always keep the old version without prompt-
              ing, unless the --force-confdef is also specified, in which case
              the default action is preferred.

              confdef:  If a conffile has been modified and the version in the
              package did change, always choose  the  default  action  without
              prompting. If there is no default action it will stop to ask the
              user unless --force-confnew  or  --force-confold  is  also  been
              given,  in  which  case  it  will  use  that to decide the final
              action.

              confask: If a conffile has been modified always offer to replace
              it  with  the version in the package, even if the version in the
              package  did  not  change  (since  dpkg  1.15.8).   If  any   of
              --force-confmiss,     --force-confnew,    --force-confold,    or
              --force-confdef is also given, it will be  used  to  decide  the
              final action.

              overwrite: Overwrite one package's file with another's file.

              overwrite-dir:  Overwrite one package's directory with another's
              file.

              overwrite-diverted: Overwrite a diverted file with an undiverted
              version.

              unsafe-io:  Do  not  perform  safe I/O operations when unpacking
              (since dpkg 1.15.8.6).  Currently this  implies  not  performing
              file  system  syncs before file renames, which is known to cause
              substantial performance degradation on some file systems, unfor-
              tunately  the  ones that require the safe I/O on the first place
              due to their unreliable behaviour causing zero-length  files  on
              abrupt system crashes.

              Note:  For  ext4,  the main offender, consider using instead the
              mount option nodelalloc, which will  fix  both  the  performance
              degradation and the data safety issues, the latter by making the
              file system not  produce  zero-length  files  on  abrupt  system
              crashes with any software not doing syncs before atomic renames.

              Warning: Using this option might improve performance at the cost
              of losing data, use with care.

              architecture: Process even packages with wrong or  no  architec-
              ture.

              bad-version:  Process  even  packages with wrong versions (since
              dpkg 1.16.1).

              bad-path: PATH is missing important programs,  so  problems  are
              likely.

              not-root: Try to (de)install things even when not root.

              bad-verify:  Install  a  package  even  if it fails authenticity
              check.

       --ignore-depends=package,...
              Ignore dependency-checking  for  specified  packages  (actually,
              checking  is  performed,  but  only warnings about conflicts are
              given, nothing else).

       --no-act, --dry-run, --simulate
              Do everything which is supposed to be done, but don't write  any
              changes.  This  is used to see what would happen with the speci-
              fied action, without actually modifying anything.

              Be sure to give --no-act before  the  action-parameter,  or  you
              might  end  up  with undesirable results. (e.g. dpkg --purge foo
              --no-act will first purge package foo  and  then  try  to  purge
              package  --no-act, even though you probably expected it to actu-
              ally do nothing)

       -R, --recursive
              Recursively handle all  regular  files  matching  pattern  *.deb
              found  at  specified  directories and all of its subdirectories.
              This can be used with -i, -A, --install,  --unpack  and  --avail
              actions.

       -G     Don't  install  a package if a newer version of the same package
              is already installed. This is an alias of --refuse-downgrade.

       --admindir=dir
              Change default administrative  directory,  which  contains  many
              files  that  give information about status of installed or unin-
              stalled packages, etc.  (Defaults to /var/lib/dpkg)

       --instdir=dir
              Change default installation directory which refers to the direc-
              tory  where  packages  are  to be installed. instdir is also the
              directory passed to chroot(2) before running package's installa-
              tion scripts, which means that the scripts see instdir as a root
              directory.  (Defaults to /)

       --root=dir
              Changing  root  changes  instdir  to   dir   and   admindir   to
              dir/var/lib/dpkg.

       -O, --selected-only
              Only  process  the  packages that are selected for installation.
              The actual marking is done with dselect or by dpkg, when it han-
              dles  packages.  For example, when a package is removed, it will
              be marked selected for deinstallation.

       -E, --skip-same-version
              Don't install the package if the same version of the package  is
              already installed.

       --pre-invoke=command
       --post-invoke=command
              Set an invoke hook command to be run via "sh -c" before or after
              the dpkg run for the unpack, configure, install,  triggers-only,
              remove,  purge,  add-architecture  and  remove-architecture dpkg
              actions (since dpkg 1.15.4; add-architecture  and  remove-archi-
              tecture  actions  since dpkg 1.17.19). This option can be speci-
              fied multiple times. The order the options are specified is pre-
              served, with the ones from the configuration files taking prece-
              dence.  The environment variable DPKG_HOOK_ACTION is set for the
              hooks  to  the  current dpkg action. Note: front-ends might call
              dpkg several times per invocation, which  might  run  the  hooks
              more times than expected.

       --path-exclude=glob-pattern
       --path-include=glob-pattern
              Set  glob-pattern  as  a path filter, either by excluding or re-
              including previously excluded paths matching the specified  pat-
              terns during install (since dpkg 1.15.8).

              Warning:  take into account that depending on the excluded paths
              you might completely break your system, use with caution.

              The glob patterns use the same wildcards used in the shell, were
              '*'  matches  any  sequence  of  characters, including the empty
              string and also  '/'.   For  example,  <>  matches
              <>.   As  usual,  '?' matches any
              single character (again, including '/').  And '[' starts a char-
              acter  class, which can contain a list of characters, ranges and
              complementations. See glob(7)  for  detailed  information  about
              globbing. Note: the current implementation might re-include more
              directories and symlinks than needed, to be on the safe side and
              avoid possible unpack failures, future work might fix this.

              This  can  be  used  to  remove all paths except some particular
              ones; a typical case is:

              --path-exclude=/usr/share/doc/*
              --path-include=/usr/share/doc/*/copyright

              to remove all documentation files except the copyright files.

              These two options can be specified multiple  times,  and  inter-
              leaved  with  each other. Both are processed in the given order,
              with the last rule that matches a file name making the decision.

       --verify-format format-name
              Sets the output format for  the  --verify  command  (since  dpkg
              1.17.2).

              The  only  currently  supported output format is rpm, which con-
              sists of a line for every path that failed any check.  The lines
              start  with 9 characters to report each specific check result, a
              '?' implies the check could not be done (lack of  support,  file
              permissions, etc), '.' implies the check passed, and an alphanu-
              meric character implies a specific check failed; the md5sum ver-
              ification  failure  (the  file contents have changed) is denoted
              with a '5' on the third character.  The line is  followed  by  a
              space  and an attribute character (currently 'c' for conffiles),
              another space and the pathname.

       --status-fd n
              Send machine-readable package status and progress information to
              file  descriptor n. This option can be specified multiple times.
              The information is generally one record per line, in one of  the
              following forms:

              status: package: status
                     Package status changed; status is as in the status file.

              status: package : error : extended-error-message
                     An  error  occurred.  Any  possible newlines in extended-
                     error-message will be converted to spaces before output.

              status: file : conffile-prompt : 'real-old'  'real-new'  usered-
              ited distedited
                     User is being asked a conffile question.

              processing: stage: package
                     Sent  just before a processing stage starts. stage is one
                     of upgrade, install (both sent before unpacking), config-
                     ure, trigproc, disappear, remove, purge.

       --status-logger=command
              Send machine-readable package status and progress information to
              the shell command's standard input, to be run via "sh -c" (since
              dpkg 1.16.0).  This option can be specified multiple times.  The
              output format used is the same as in --status-fd.

       --log=filename
              Log status change updates and actions to  filename,  instead  of
              the  default /var/log/dpkg.log. If this option is given multiple
              times, the last filename is used. Log messages are of  the  form
              'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS startup type command' for each dpkg invoca-
              tion where type  is  archives  (with  a  command  of  unpack  or
              install)  or  packages  (with  a  command  of  configure,  trig-
              gers-only, remove or purge); 'YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS  status  state
              pkg  installed-version'  for  status change updates; 'YYYY-MM-DD
              HH:MM:SS action  pkg  installed-version  available-version'  for
              actions  where  action  is  one  of install, upgrade, configure,
              trigproc, disappear, remove or purge; and  'YYYY-MM-DD  HH:MM:SS
              conffile  filename decision' for conffile changes where decision
              is either install or keep.

       --no-debsig
              Do not try to verify package signatures.

       --no-triggers
              Do not run any triggers in this run (since  dpkg  1.14.17),  but
              activations  will  still  be recorded.  If used with --configure
              package  or  --triggers-only  package  then  the  named  package
              postinst  will  still  be  run  even  if  only a triggers run is
              needed. Use of this option may leave packages  in  the  improper
              triggers-awaited  and triggers-pending states. This can be fixed
              later by running: dpkg --configure --pending.

       --triggers
              Cancels a previous --no-triggers (since dpkg 1.14.17).

ENVIRONMENT
   External environment
       PATH   This variable is expected to be defined in the  environment  and
              point to the system paths where several required programs are to
              be found. If it's not set or the programs are  not  found,  dpkg
              will abort.

       HOME   If set, dpkg will use it as the directory from which to read the
              user specific configuration file.

       TMPDIR If set, dpkg will use it as the directory  in  which  to  create
              temporary files and directories.

       PAGER  The program dpkg will execute when displaying the conffiles.

       SHELL  The  program  dpkg  will execute when starting a new interactive
              shell.

       COLUMNS
              Sets the number of columns dpkg should use when displaying  for-
              matted text. Currently only used by -l.

   Internal environment
       DPKG_SHELL_REASON
              Defined  by  dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to
              examine the situation (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Current valid value:
              conffile-prompt.

       DPKG_CONFFILE_OLD
              Defined  by  dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to
              examine the situation (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Contains the path to
              the old conffile.

       DPKG_CONFFILE_NEW
              Defined  by  dpkg on the shell spawned on the conffile prompt to
              examine the situation (since dpkg 1.15.6).  Contains the path to
              the new conffile.

       DPKG_HOOK_ACTION
              Defined  by  dpkg  on  the  shell  spawned when executing a hook
              action (since dpkg 1.15.4).  Contains the current dpkg action.

       DPKG_RUNNING_VERSION
              Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the ver-
              sion   of  the  currently  running  dpkg  instance  (since  dpkg
              1.14.17).

       DPKG_MAINTSCRIPT_PACKAGE
              Defined by dpkg on the  maintainer  script  environment  to  the
              (non-arch-qualified)  package  name  being  handled  (since dpkg
              1.14.17).

       DPKG_MAINTSCRIPT_PACKAGE_REFCOUNT
              Defined by dpkg on the  maintainer  script  environment  to  the
              package  reference  count,  i.e. the number of package instances
              with a state greater than not-installed (since dpkg 1.17.2).

       DPKG_MAINTSCRIPT_ARCH
              Defined by dpkg on the  maintainer  script  environment  to  the
              architecture the package got built for (since dpkg 1.15.4).

       DPKG_MAINTSCRIPT_NAME
              Defined by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to the name
              of the script running, one of preinst, postinst, prerm or postrm
              (since dpkg 1.15.7).

       DPKG_MAINTSCRIPT_DEBUG
              Defined  by dpkg on the maintainer script environment to a value
              ('0' or '1') noting whether debugging has been  requested  (with
              the  --debug  option)  for  the  maintainer  scripts (since dpkg
              1.18.4).

FILES
       /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg.d/[0-9a-zA-Z_-]*
              Configuration fragment files (since dpkg 1.15.4).

       /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg
              Configuration file with default options.

       /var/log/dpkg.log
              Default log file (see /etc/dpkg/dpkg.cfg(5) and option --log).

       The other files listed below are  in  their  default  directories,  see
       option --admindir to see how to change locations of these files.

       /var/lib/dpkg/available
              List of available packages.

       /var/lib/dpkg/status
              Statuses  of  available packages. This file contains information
              about whether a package is marked for removing or  not,  whether
              it is installed or not, etc. See section INFORMATION ABOUT PACK-
              AGES for more info.

              The status file is backed up daily in /var/backups.  It  can  be
              useful if it's lost or corrupted due to filesystems troubles.

       The  following files are components of a binary package. See deb(5) for
       more information about them:
              control
              conffiles
              preinst
              postinst
              prerm
              postrm
              triggers

BUGS
       --no-act usually gives less information than might be helpful.

EXAMPLES
       To list installed packages related  to  the  editor  vi(1)  (note  that
       dpkg-query does not load the available file anymore by default, and the
       dpkg-query --load-avail option should be used instead for that):
            dpkg -l '*vi*'

       To see the entries in /var/lib/dpkg/available of two packages:
            dpkg --print-avail elvis vim | less

       To search the listing of packages yourself:
            less /var/lib/dpkg/available

       To remove an installed elvis package:
            dpkg -r elvis

       To install a package, you first need to find it in an archive or CDROM.
       The available file shows that the vim package is in section editors:
            cd /media/cdrom/pool/main/v/vim
            dpkg -i vim_4.5-3.deb

       To make a local copy of the package selection states:
            dpkg --get-selections >myselections

       You  might  transfer  this  file  to another computer, and after having
       updated the available file there with your package manager frontend  of
       choice  (see  https://wiki.debian.org/Teams/Dpkg/FAQ for more details),
       for example:
            apt-cache dumpavail | dpkg --merge-avail
       or with dpkg 1.17.6 and earlier:
            avail=`mktemp`
            apt-cache dumpavail >"$avail"
            dpkg --merge-avail "$avail"
            rm "$avail"
       you can install it with:
            dpkg --clear-selections
            dpkg --set-selections 


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